Review

Well, that's the end of the unit! Take a moment to review what we've studied. Whenever you're ready, move on to the next unit, in which we will start reading larger pieces of the Bhagavad Gita.

Starting from the basic Sanskrit sounds, we created and read basic Sanskrit sentences: we learned how verbs describe actions in three persons and three numbers; we learned how nouns are used to describe the different parts of a sentence and give it more definition; we learned how uninflected words are used to make more complex and nuanced ideas; and we learned how to use these three types of words together in a single Sanskrit sentence.

Additionally, we studied the process of word formation and learned how smaller words become larger to express more complex and abstract ideas. We also studied the traditional verb system, which most textbooks use. This system will be used for the rest of the guide.

Sandhi

To review the rules of vowel sandhi, see the vowel sandhi page in the References part of the site. Go to the "General Rules" section. In addition to the rules in that section, remember this rule: ī, ū, and e, when they are at the end of dual forms, never combine.

To review the rules of visarga sandhi, see the visarga sandhi page in the References part of the site.

For other sandhi rules, see the relevant lessons.

Devanagari

For a full review of Devanagari, see this page in the References.

Verbs

We started with the present tense and learned about roots and classes. We then learned about the distinction between parasmaipada and ātmanepada. Atmanepada verbs usually have an object-less or reflexive quality. But, not all verbs follow these rules, and some atmanepada verbs behave just like parasmaipada verbs.

These are the four classes we studied.

Verb Class
Rules
a+
medium root + a
a0
root + a
ya
root + ya
aya
medium root + aya

The a0-class verbs might have an extra nasal, as in vid → vinda.

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To see the four prefixes we studied, go back to the lesson on prefixes.

Nouns and Pronouns

Nouns

-a (masculine)
गज Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) गजः
gajaḥ
गजौ
gajau
गजाः
gajāḥ
Case 2 (object) गजम्
gajam
गजौ
gajau
गजान्
gajān
Case 3 ("with") गजेन
gajena
Case 4 ("for") गजाय
gajāya
Case 5 ("from") गजात्
gajāt
Case 6 ("of") गजस्य
gajasya
गजयोः
gajayoḥ
गजानाम्
gajānām
Case 7 ("in") गजे
gaje
Case 8 (address) गज
gaja
गजौ
gajau
गजाः
gajāḥ

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The case 6 endings for neuter nouns like phala are the same as the case 3 endings for masculine nouns like nara.

Pronouns

mad (no gender)
मद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) अहम्
aham
आवाम्
āvām
वयम्
vayam
Case 2 (object) माम्
mām
आवाम्
āvām
अस्मान्
asmān
Case 6 ("of") मम
mama
आवयोः
āvayoḥ
अस्माकम्
asmākam
tvad (no gender)
त्वद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) त्वम्
tvam
युवाम्
yuvām
यूयम्
yūyam
Case 2 (object) त्वाम्
tvām
युवाम्
yuvām
युष्मान्
yuṣmān
Case 6 ("of") तव
tava
युवयोः
yuvayoḥ
युष्माकम्
yuṣmākam
tad (masculine)
तद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) सः
saḥ
तौ
tau
ते
te
Case 2 (object) तम्
tam
तौ
tau
तान्
tān
Case 6 ("of") तस्य
tasya
तयोः
tayoḥ
तेषाम्
teṣām
tad (neuter)
तद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) तत्
tat
ते
te
तानि
tāni
Case 2 (object) तत्
tat
ते
te
तानि
tāni

Adjectives and the rest

Adjectives have the same number, gender, and case as the nouns they modify. Adjectives can also stand by themselves. Thus, sundara can mean "the beautiful one."

To produce an adverb, inflect an adjective in the neuter singular of case 1. So, sundaram can mean "beautifully."

We covered only a small number of uninflected words. You can review them in their proper chapter.

As for suffixes, see the chapter on word formation.

Supplements

You can see a list of supplemental lessons here. Feel free to read any lesson from A or B. As for the unit on Panini, feel free to read up to C.3 ("The Structure of the Ashtadhyayi").

Onward!

You're done with Starting Out, the third unit of this guide! Please let us know what you thought of the unit by using the site's contact form.