The ad and rudh classes

In the previous lesson, we learned about three of the six complex verb classes:

Root Strong stem Weak stem
सु
su
सुनो
suno
सुनु
sunu
तन्
tan
तनो
tano
तनु
tanu
क्री
krī
क्रीणा
krīṇā
क्रीणी
krīṇī

In this lesson, we will learn about two more complex verb classes. Both of these classes can create stems that end with consonant sounds. And since many verb endings start with consonants, these classes may cause all kinds of sandhi changes:

  • द्वेष् + ति → द्वेष्टि
    dveṣ + ti → dveṣṭi
    (someone) hates

The ad class

Also known as: class 2, adādigaṇa (“the group starting with ad”)

The ad class does not use a suffix. Instead, its strong stem is the root with a strengthened vowel, and its weak stem is the root itself.

The root ad has ad for its strong stem and the same ad for its weak stem. So, ad does not demonstrate these changes well. Instead, let's use the root dviṣ (“hate”), which has a clearer difference between its strong and weak stems:

  • द्वेष्टि।
    dveṣṭi.
    (Someone) hates.

  • द्विषन्ति।
    dviṣanti.
    They hate.

For the word dveṣṭi, notice that the root ends with a consonant () and the ending begins with a consonant (t). When two consonants are next to each other, many different sandhi changes might occur.

The ad class has many irregular roots. The most important irregular root of the ad class is as, which means “be” or “exist.” Its strong stem is as, and its weak stem is s:

  • वनम् अस्ति।
    vanam asti.
    There is a forest.

  • वानरा वने सन्ति।
    vānarā vane santi.
    Monkeys are in the forest.

The rudh class

Also known as: class 7, rudhādigaṇa (“the group starting with rudh”)

Like the ad class, the rudh class also doesn't use a suffix. Instead, we create the strong and weak stems by inserting a nasal sound after the root's last vowel. For the strong stem, we insert na. For the weak stem, we insert n:

  • रुध् → रुणद्धि
    rudh → ruṇaddhi
    (Someone) obstructs.

  • रुध् → रुन्धन्ति
    rudh → rundhanti
    They obstruct.

Again, notice the sandhi change:

  • रुणध् + ति → रुणद्धि
    ruṇadh + ti → ruṇaddhi

And as a reminder, r generally causes nearby n sounds to become . Hence we have ruṇaddhi and not *runaddhi. (We use the * symbol to show that this word is not correct Sanskrit.)

Endings of the ad class

With one or two exceptions, the ad class uses the same endings as the krī class. But since the ad class may cause many sandhi changes, these endings may not always be clear. We want to show you what these changes are like, so we will show you all of the forms of dviṣ in the special tense-moods.

First, here are the parasmaipada forms of dviṣ in the present tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdद्वेष्टि
dveṣṭi
द्विष्टः
dviṣṭaḥ
द्विषन्ति
dviṣanti
2ndद्वेक्षि
dvekṣi
द्विष्ठः
dviṣṭhaḥ
द्विष्ठ
dviṣṭha
1stद्वेष्मि
dveṣmi
द्विष्वः
dviṣvaḥ
द्विष्मः
dviṣmaḥ

Next, here is the command mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdद्वेष्टु
dveṣṭu
द्विष्टाम्
dviṣṭām
द्विषन्तु
dviṣantu
2ndद्विड्ढि
dviḍḍhi
द्विष्टम्
dviṣṭam
द्विष्ट
dviṣṭa
1stद्वेषाणि
dveṣāṇi
द्वेषाव
dveṣāva
द्वेषाम
dveṣāma

In the second-person singular, we use dhi instead of hi if the root ends in a consonant. Then dviṣ + dhi becomes dviḍḍhi due to sandhi.

Next, we have the ordinary past tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdअद्वेट्
adveṭ
अद्विष्टाम्
adviṣṭām
अद्विषन्
adviṣan
2ndअद्वेट्
adveṭ
अद्विष्टम्
adviṣṭam
अद्विष्ट
adviṣṭa
1stअद्वेषम्
adveṣam
अद्विष्व
adviṣva
अद्विष्म
adviṣma

If the root ends in , we can also use the ending -uḥ instead of -an:

  • या → अयान्, अयुः
    yā → ayān, ayuḥ
    They went.

Finally, we have the the potential mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdद्विष्यात्
dviṣyāt
द्विष्याताम्
dviṣyātām
द्विष्युः
dviṣyuḥ
2ndद्विष्याः
dviṣyāḥ
द्विष्यातम्
dviṣyātam
द्विष्यात
dviṣyāta
1stद्विष्याम्
dviṣyām
द्विष्याव
dviṣyāva
द्विष्याम
dviṣyāma

Now, here are the ātmanepada forms of dviṣ in the present tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdद्विष्टे
dviṣṭe
द्विषाते
dviṣāte
द्विषते
dviṣate
2ndद्विक्षे
dvikṣe
द्विषाथे
dviṣāthe
द्विड्ढ्वे
dviḍḍhve
1stद्विषे
dviṣe
द्विष्वहे
dviṣvahe
द्विष्महे
dviṣmahe

the command mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdद्विष्टाम्
dviṣṭām
द्विषाताम्
dviṣātām
द्विषताम्
dviṣatām
2ndद्विक्ष्व
dvikṣva
द्विषाथाम्
dviṣāthām
द्विड्ढ्वम्
dviḍḍhvam
1stद्वेषै
dveṣai
द्वेषावहै
dveṣāvahai
द्वेषामहै
dveṣāmahai

the ordinary past tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdअद्विष्ट
adviṣṭa
अद्विषाताम्
adviṣātām
अद्विषत
adviṣata
2ndअद्विष्ठाः
adviṣṭhāḥ
अद्विषाथाम्
adviṣāthām
अद्विड्ढ्वम्
adviḍḍhvam
1stअद्विषि
adviṣi
अद्विष्वहि
adviṣvahi
अद्विष्महि
adviṣmahi

and the potential mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdद्विषीत
dviṣīta
द्विषीयाताम्
dviṣīyātām
द्विषीरन्
dviṣīran
2ndद्विषीथाः
dviṣīthāḥ
द्विषीयाथाम्
dviṣīyāthām
द्विषीढ्वम्
dviṣīḍhvam
1stद्विषीय
dviṣīya
द्विषीवहि
dviṣīvahi
द्विषीमहि
dviṣīmahi

Endings of the rudh class

The rudh class uses the same endings as the krī class. But as before, the rudh class may cause many different sandhi changes.

Here are the parasmaipada forms of rudh in the present tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdरुणद्धि
ruṇaddhi
रुन्द्धः
runddhaḥ
रुन्धन्ति
rundhanti
2ndरुणत्सि
ruṇatsi
रुन्द्धः
runddhaḥ
रुन्द्ध
runddha
1stरुणध्मि
ruṇadhmi
रुन्ध्वः
rundhvaḥ
रुन्ध्मः
rundhmaḥ

and the command mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdरुणद्धु
ruṇaddhu
रुन्द्धाम्
runddhām
रुन्धन्तु
rundhantu
2ndरुन्द्धि
runddhi
रुन्द्धम्
runddham
रुन्द्ध
runddha
1stरुणधानि
ruṇadhāni
रुणधाव
ruṇadhāva
रुणधाम
ruṇadhāma

Next are the forms of the ordinary past tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdअरुणत्
aruṇat
अरुन्द्धाम्
arunddhām
अरुन्धन्
arundhan
2ndअरुणत्
aruṇat
अरुन्द्धम्
arunddham
अरुन्द्ध
arunddha
1stअरुणधम्
aruṇadham
अरुन्ध्व
arundhva
अरुन्ध्म
arundhma

Finally, we have the potential mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdरुन्ध्यात्
rundhyāt
रुन्ध्याताम्
rundhyātām
रुन्ध्युः
rundhyuḥ
2ndरुन्ध्याः
rundhyāḥ
रुन्ध्यातम्
rundhyātam
रुन्ध्यात
rundhyāta
1stरुन्ध्याम्
rundhyām
रुन्ध्याव
rundhyāva
रुन्ध्याम
rundhyāma

Next, we have the ātmanepada forms of rudh in the present tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdरुन्द्धे
runddhe
रुन्धाते
rundhāte
रुन्धते
rundhate
2ndरुन्त्से
runtse
रुन्धाथे
rundhāthe
रुन्द्ध्वे
runddhve
1stरुन्धे
rundhe
रुन्ध्वहे
rundhvahe
रुन्ध्महे
rundhmahe

the command mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdरुन्द्धाम्
runddhām
रुन्धाताम्
rundhātām
रुन्धताम्
rundhatām
2ndरुन्त्स्व
runtsva
रुन्धाथाम्
rundhāthām
रुन्द्ध्वम्
runddhvam
1stरुणधै
ruṇadhai
रुणधावहै
ruṇadhāvahai
रुणधामहै
ruṇadhāmahai

the ordinary past tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdअरुन्द्ध
arunddha
अरुन्धाताम्
arundhātām
अरुन्धत
arundhata
2ndअरुन्द्धाः
arunddhāḥ
अरुन्धाथाम्
arundhāthām
अरुन्द्ध्वम्
arunddhvam
1stअरुन्धि
arundhi
अरुन्ध्वहि
arundhvahi
अरुन्ध्महि
arundhmahi

and the potential mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdरुन्धीत
rundhīta
रुन्धीयाताम्
rundhīyātām
रुन्धीरन्
rundhīran
2ndरुन्धीथाः
rundhīthāḥ
रुन्धीयाथाम्
rundhīyāthām
रुन्धीध्वम्
rundhīdhvam
1stरुन्धीय
rundhīya
रुन्धीवहि
rundhīvahi
रुन्धीमहि
rundhīmahi

Review

The ad and rudh classes cause many different sandhi changes. But we can learn these forms through exposure over time, and we can understand their meanings from context.

  1. What are the strong and weak stems of dviṣ?

  2. What are the strong and weak stems of rudh?

  3. What is the most important root of the ad class?