The hu class

Also known as: class 3, juhotyādigaṇa (“the group starting with juhoti”)

The last class we will consider is the hu class. The hu class forms its stems in a unique way. It does not use a special suffix, and we do not insert any new sounds. Instead, we double the root in a special way:

  • हु → जुहु
    hu → juhu
    offer

Then the strong stem uses a strengthened vowel and the weak stem has no extra change:

  • जुहोति।
    juhoti.
    (Someone) offers.

  • जुहुतः।
    juhutaḥ.
    (The two of them) offer.

Basic rules of doubling

Long vowels become short:

  • दा दा → ददा
    dā dā → dadā

Aspirated sounds become unaspirated:

  • धा धा → दधा
    dhā dhā → dadhā

Sounds pronounced at the soft palate (ka) shift to the hard palate (ca):

  • कि कि → चिकि
    ki ki → ciki

  • हु हु → जुहु
    hu hu → juhu

There are other minor rules, but these are the common patterns.

Irregular roots

The hu class has many irregular roots. The most important are (“give”) and dhā (“place”). uses the strong stem dadā and uses weak stem dad:

  • रामः फलं सीतायै ददाति।
    rāmaḥ phalaṃ sītāyai dadāti.
    Rama gives the fruit to Sita.

  • ते फलानि रामाय ददति।
    te phalāni rāmāya dadati.
    They give the fruits to Rama.

It also has the irregular command form dehi:

  • देहि मे फलम्!
    dehi me phalam!
    Give me a fruit!

dhā generally follows the same pattern as .

Endings of the hu class

The hu class generally uses the same parasmaipada endings as the other complex classes. In the present tense, we use -ati instead of -anti:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdजुहोति
juhoti
जुहुतः
juhutaḥ
जुह्वति
juhvati
2ndजुहोषि
juhoṣi
जुहुथः
juhuthaḥ
जुहुथ
juhutha
1stजुहोमि
juhomi
जुहुवः
juhuvaḥ
जुहुमः
juhumaḥ

The command mood is normal, but we use the ending -dhi instead of -hi:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdजुहोतु
juhotu
जुहुताम्
juhutām
जुह्वतु
juhvatu
2ndजुहुधि
juhudhi
जुहुतम्
juhutam
जुहुत
juhuta
1stजुहवानि
juhavāni
जुहवाव
juhavāva
जुहवाम
juhavāma

The ordinary past tense is normal, but we use the ending -uḥ instead of -an:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdअजुहोत्
ajuhot
अजुहुताम्
ajuhutām
अजुहवुः
ajuhavuḥ
2ndअजुहोः
ajuhoḥ
अजुहुतम्
ajuhutam
अजुहुत
ajuhuta
1stअजुहवम्
ajuhavam
अजुहुव
ajuhuva
अजुहुम
ajuhuma

And the potential mood is normal:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdजुहुयात्
juhuyāt
जुहुयाताम्
juhuyātām
जुहुयुः
juhuyuḥ
2ndजुहुयाः
juhuyāḥ
जुहुयातम्
juhuyātam
जुहुयात
juhuyāta
1stजुहुयाम्
juhuyām
जुहुयाव
juhuyāva
जुहुयाम
juhuyāma

The ātmanepada endings are the same as for the other complex classes.

Review

We have now seen all ten of the Sanskrit verb classes. Below, you can see all ten of these classes in their traditional order. We illustrate the ad class with the root dviṣ, and we leave the weak stem blank for roots in the simple verb classes:

Class Strong stem Weak stem
भू
bhū
भव
bhava

अद्
ad
द्वेष्
dveṣ
द्विष्
dviṣ
हु
hu
जुहो
juho
जुहु
juhu
दिव्
div
दीव्य
dīvya

सु
su
सुनो
suno
सुनु
sunu
तुद्
tud
तुद
tuda

रुध्
rudh
रुनध्
runadh
रुन्ध्
rundh
तन्
tan
तनो
tano
तनु
tanu
क्री
krī
क्रीणा
krīṇā
क्रीणी
krīṇī
चुर्
cur
चोरय
coraya

As you read and listen to more Sanskrit, you will be able to use these classes instinctively.

  1. How do we double the root ?

  2. How do we double the root bhī?