The su, tan, and krī classes

In the previous lesson, we learned about the four simple verb classes:

Root Stem
भू
bhū
भव
bhava
दिव्
div
दीव्य
dīvya
तुद्
tud
तुद्
tud
चुर्
cur
चोरय
coraya

The other six verb classes are more complex. Let's call these six classes the complex verb classes for short.

In this lesson, we will study three of these classes: the su class, the tan class, and the krī class. First, we will learn how these classes form their stems. Then, we will learn how to use these stems with the endings of the four special tense-moods.

What makes a verb class complex?

Why are these classes called the complex verb class? First, their stems end in sounds other than -a. As a result, we might have to apply various sandhi changes to these stems and endings:

  • द्वेष् + ति → द्वेष्टि
    dveṣ + ti → dveṣṭi
    hate → (someone) hates

Second, their stems come in two different versions: a strong stem that is used with certain endings, and a weak ending that is used with the other endings:

  • द्वेष् + ति → द्वेष्टि
    dveṣ + ti → dveṣṭi
    hate → (someone) hates
    (strong stem)

  • द्विष् + अन्ति → द्विषन्ति
    dviṣ + anti → dviṣanti
    hate → (someone) hates
    (weak stem)

Third, some of these classes use endings that differ from the endings we have seen already:

  • कृ → कुर्वते
    kṛ → kurvate
    They all make.
    (Note that this is not kurvante, as we might otherwise expect)

The su class

The su class uses two different stems. Its strong stem uses the suffix -no, and its weak stem uses the suffix -nu:

  • सु → सुनोति
    su → sunoti
    (Someone) presses out.

  • सु → सुन्वन्ति
    su → sunvanti
    They press out.

One of its important irregular verbs is śru (“hear”). Its strong stems is śṛṇo, and its weak stem is śṛṇu:

  • श्रु → शृणोति
    śru → śṛṇoti
    (Someone) hears.

  • श्रु → शृण्वन्ति
    śru → śṛṇvanti
    They hear.

The tan class

The tan class is just like the su class. But instead of using -no and -nu, it uses -o and -u:

  • तन् → तनोति
    tan → tanoti
    expand → (someone) expands

  • तन् → तन्वन्ति
    tan → tanvanti
    expand → they expand

The tan class contains only ten roots. But it also contains the root kṛ (“do, make”), which is one of the most common roots in all of Sanskrit. The strong stem of kṛ is karo-, and the weak stem is kuru-:

  • कृ → करोति
    kṛ → karoti
    do → (someone) does

  • कृ → कुर्वन्ति
    kṛ → kurvanti
    do → they do

The krī class

The krī class uses -nā for its strong stem and -nī for its weak stem:

  • क्री → क्रीणाति
    krī → krīṇāti
    buy → (someone) buys

  • क्री → क्रीणीतः
    krī → krīṇītaḥ
    buy → the two of them buy

krī + nā becomes krīṇā due to a sandhi rule. The idea is that r might cause the n sounds that follow it to become .

Complex classes with parasmaipada endings

The complex classes use the same parasmaipada endings as the simple classes. In the tables below, the red words use a strong stem.

First, we have the present tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdसुनोति
sunoti
सुनुतः
sunutaḥ
सुन्वन्ति
sunvanti
2ndसुनोषि
sunoṣi
सुनुथः
sunuthaḥ
सुनुथ
sunutha
1stसुनोमि
sunomi
सुनुवः
sunuvaḥ
सुनुमः
sunumaḥ

Notice the sandhi change in the second-person singular (sunosi becomes sunoṣi).

Next, we have the command mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdसुनोतु
sunotu
सुनुताम्
sunutām
सुन्वन्तु
sunvantu
2ndसुनु
sunu
सुनुतम्
sunutam
सुनुत
sunuta
1stसुनवानि
sunavāni
सुनवाव
sunavāva
सुनवाम
sunavāma

Then the ordinary past tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdअसुनोत्
asunot
असुनुताम्
asunutām
असुन्वन्
asunvan
2ndअसुनोः
asunoḥ
असुनुतम्
asunutam
असुनुत
asunuta
1stअसुनवम्
asunavam
असुनुव
asunuva
असुनुम
asunuma

And the potential mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdसुनुयात्
sunuyāt
सुनुयाताम्
sunuyātām
सुनुयुः
sunuyuḥ
2ndसुनुयाः
sunuyāḥ
सुनुयातम्
sunuyātam
सुनुयात
sunuyāta
1stसुनुयाम्
sunuyām
सुनुयाव
sunuyāva
सुनुयाम
sunuyāma

Notice that the ending uses -yā- instead of -ī-. But the 3rd person plural ending is just -yuḥ.

Complex classes with ātmanepada endings

The complex classes generally use the same ātmanepada endings as the simple classes. The major difference is the third-person plural. Although we use -ante and -anta in the simple classes, we use -ate and -ata here:

  • लभन्ते
    labhante
    They obtain.

  • सुन्वते
    sunvate
    They press out.

  • अलभन्त
    alabhanta
    They obtained.

  • असुन्वत
    asunvata
    They pressed out.

First, we have the present tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdसुनुते
sunute
सुन्वाते
sunvāte
सुन्वते
sunvate
2ndसुनुषे
sunuṣe
सुन्वाथे
sunvāthe
सुनुध्वे
sunudhve
1stसुन्वे
sunve
सुनुवहे
sunuvahe
सुनुमहे
sunumahe

For the first person, we also have the optional forms sunvahe and sunmahe.

Next is the command mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdसुनुताम्
sunutām
सुन्वाताम्
sunvātām
सुन्वताम्
sunvatām
2ndसुनुष्व
sunuṣva
सुन्वाथाम्
sunvāthām
सुनुध्वम्
sunudhvam
1stसुनवै
sunavai
सुनवावहै
sunavāvahai
सुनवामहै
sunavāmahai

Then the ordinary past tense:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdअसुनुत
asunuta
असुन्वाताम्
asunvātām
असुन्वत
asunvata
2ndअसुनुथाः
asunuthāḥ
असुन्वाथाम्
asunvāthām
असुनुध्वम्
asunudhvam
1stअसुन्वि
asunvi
असुनुवहि
asunuvahi
असुनुमहि
asunumahi

Here, too, we have the optional forms asunvahi and asunmahi in the first person.

Finally, we have the potential mood:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdसुन्वीत
sunvīta
सुन्वीयाताम्
sunvīyātām
सुन्वीरन्
sunvīran
2ndसुन्वीथाः
sunvīthāḥ
सुन्वीयाथाम्
sunvīyāthām
सुन्वीध्वम्
sunvīdhvam
1stसुन्वीय
sunvīya
सुन्वीवहि
sunvīvahi
सुन्वीमहि
sunvīmahi

Notice that most of these endings start with -ī-.

Endings for the tan and krī classes

The tan class is essentially identical to the su class, including its optional forms.

The krī class also uses the same endings. But the last of its weak stem uses a special sandhi rule: if the verb ending starts with a, then the is removed:

  • क्रीणी + अन्ति → क्रीणन्ति
    krīṇī + anti → krīṇanti

  • क्रीणी + अन्तु → क्रीणन्तु
    krīṇī + antu → krīṇantu

  • अक्रीणी + अन् → अक्रीणन्
    akrīṇī + an → akrīṇan

  • क्रीणी + अते → क्रीणते
    krīṇī + ate → krīṇate

  • अक्रीणी + अत → अक्रीणत
    akrīṇī + ata → akrīṇata

Also, the second-person singular of the command mood uses the ending -hi:

  • एतत् क्रीणीहि
    etat krīṇīhi.
    Buy this.

Review

  1. What are the strong and weak stems of su?

  2. What are the strong and weak stems of śru?

  3. What are the strong and weak stems of tan?

  4. What are the strong and weak stems of kṛ?

  5. What are the strong and weak stems of krī?