vikaraṇa

In the previous lesson, we continued our prakriyā by replacing la̐ṭ with the ending ti:

  1. ṇīñ
  2. ṇī1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. 6.1.65 ṇo naḥ
  4. nī la̐ṭ3.2.123 vartamāne laṭ
  5. nī tip1.3.78 śeṣāt kartari parasmaipadam
  6. nī ti1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ

This ti ending is called sārvadhātuka by 3.4.113 (tiṅśitsārvadhātukam). And a sārvadhātuka ending can cause various kinds of changes to the term before it.

One common change is that a sārvadhātuka causes a new pratyaya to be added to the derivation. It is through these pratyayas that we get the various classes of Sanskrit verbs. In the examples below, you can see an example of each verb class in the present tense:

  • भू → भवति
    bhū → bhavati

  • अद् → अत्ति
    ad → atti

  • हु → जुहोति
    hu → juhoti

  • दिव् → दीव्यति
    div → dīvyati

  • सु → सुनोति
    su → sunoti

  • तुद् → तुदति
    tud → tudati

  • रुध् → रुणद्धि
    rudh → ruṇaddhi

  • तन् → तनोति
    tan → tanoti

  • क्री → क्रीणाति
    krī → krīṇāti

  • चुर् → चोरयति
    cur → corayati

These affixes are commonly called vikaraṇas. In this lesson, we will learn how to continue our prakriyā by adding the appropriate vikaraṇa after the root.

adhikāra rules

As before, the rules below are within the scope of these adhikāra rules:

  • प्रत्ययः। ३.१.१
    pratyayaḥ (3.1.1)
    pratyayaḥ
    … is a pratyaya (suffix).

  • परश्च। ३.१.२
    paraśca (3.1.2)
    paraḥ ca
    … and [it is inserted] after [the base].

  • धातोः। ३.१.९१
    dhātoḥ (3.1.91)
    dhātoḥ
    After a dhātu

  • कृदतिङ्। ३.१.९३
    kṛdatiṅ (3.1.93)
    kṛt a-tiṅ
    … is called kṛt (a kind of nominal suffix), excepting the tiṅ suffixes.

The vikaraṇas

We start with the general case:

  • सार्वधातुके यक्। ३.१.६७
    sārvadhātuke yak (3.1.67)
    sārvadhātuke yak
    [The kṛt pratyaya] yak [is added after the dhātu] when a sārvadhātuka [suffix] follows.

  • कर्तरि शप्। ३.१.६८
    kartari śap (3.1.68)
    kartari śap
    [The kṛt pratyaya] śap [is added] in kartari-prayoga (agentive usage) [after the dhātu when a sārvadhātuka suffix follows].

Rule 3.1.68 is a restriction on rule 3.1.67. We use śap by default in kartari prayoga, and we use yak in the other prayogas.

Let's set aside yak for now and focus on śap. By rules 1.3.3 (halantyam) and 1.3.8 (laśakvataddhite), we know that the actual suffix is a. By rule 3.4.113 (tiṅśitsārvadhātukam), we know that this a is called sārvadhātuka. Since śap has p as an it letter, it can cause a certain sound change. We'll learn more about that change in the next lesson.

The rules that follow add further restrictions to the rules above. For example, this rule defines the correct vikaraṇa for div and some other roots:

  • दिवादिभ्यः श्यन्। ३.१.६९
    divādibhyaḥ śyan (3.1.69)
    div-ādibhyaḥ śyan
    [The kṛt pratyaya] śyan [is added in kartari-prayoga after the dhātus] in the list beginning with div [when a sārvadhātuka suffix follows].

How do we know which roots are in the div list? Ultimately, we must consult the Dhātupāṭha. When we do, we see that div is the first rule of the fourth major list (gaṇa):

  • णीञ् प्रापणे। १.१०४९
    ṇīñ prāpaṇe (1.1049)
    in the sense of obtaining or leading

  • दिवुँ क्रीडाविजिगीषाव्यवहारद्युतिस्तुतिमोदमदस्वप्नकान्तिगतिषु। ४.१
    divu̐ krīḍāvijigīṣāvyavahāradyutistutimodamadasvapnakāntigatiṣu (4.1)
    div in the senses of: krīḍā (play), vijiṅīṣā (desire to win), vyavahāra (transaction), dyuti (glowing or shining), stuti (praising), moda (pleasing), mada (boasting), svapna (sleeping), kānti (desiring), or gati (motion)

So, all of the roots in the div list will use the vikaraṇa śyan instead of śap.

Next we have the su class:

  • स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः। ३.१.७३
    svādibhyaḥ śnuḥ (3.1.73)
    su-ādibhyaḥ śnuḥ
    [The kṛt pratyaya] śnu [is added in kartari-prayoga after the dhātus] in the list beginning with su [when a sārvadhātuka suffix follows].

  • श्रुवः शृ च। ३.१.७४
    śruvaḥ śṛ ca (3.1.74)
    śruvaḥ śṛ ca
    And [likewise] of śru [which becomes śṛ].

The tud class:

  • तुदादिभ्यः शः। ३.१.७७
    tudādibhyaḥ śaḥ (3.1.77)
    tud-ādibhyaḥ śaḥ
    [The kṛt pratyaya] śa [is added in kartari-prayoga after the dhātus] in the list beginning with tud [when a sārvadhātuka suffix follows].

And the rudh class:

  • रुधादिभ्यः श्नम्। ३.१.७८
    rudhādibhyaḥ śnam (3.1.78)
    rudh-ādibhyaḥ śnam
    [The kṛt pratyaya] śnam [is added in kartari-prayoga after the dhātus] in the list beginning with rudh [when a sārvadhātuka suffix follows].

Note that the rudh roots use the vikaraṇa śnam. The actual suffix is na, which is śit and mit. By rule 1.1.47 (midaco'ntyātparaḥ), na will be inserted after the last vowel of the root:

  • रुध् → रु न ध्
    rudh → ru na dh

Next we have the tan class:

  • तनादिकृञ्भ्य उः। ३.१.७९
    tanādikṛñbhya uḥ (3.1.79)
    tan-ādi-kṛñbhyaḥ uḥ
    [The kṛt pratyaya] u [is added in kartari-prayoga after the dhātus] in the list beginning with tan, and also after kṛ, [when a sārvadhātuka suffix follows].

And the krī class:

  • क्र्यादिभ्यः श्ना। ३.१.८१
    kryādibhyaḥ śnā (3.1.81)
    krī-ādibhyaḥ śnā
    [The kṛt pratyaya] śnā [is added in kartari-prayoga after the dhātus] in the list beginning with krī [when a sārvadhātuka suffix follows].

The ad, hu, and cur classes

The other three classes use a slightly different approach.

The ad class replaces śap with luk, which causes lopa. In the rule below, luk is available through anuvṛtti from a previous rule:

  • अदि-प्रभृतिभ्यः शपः। २.४.७२
    adi-prabhṛtibhyaḥ śapaḥ (2.4.72)
    adi-prabhṛtibhyaḥ śapaḥ
    [luk] replaces śap when it follows [the dhātus] in the list starting with ad.

The hu class uses the suffix ślu, which causes lopa and also causes the root sound to be doubled (hujuhu):

  • जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः। २.४.७५
    juhotyādibhyaḥ śluḥ (2.4.75)
    juhoti-adibhyaḥ śluḥ
    [The deletion suffix] ślu replaces śap when it follows [the dhātus] in the list starting with ad.

The cur class, meanwhile, uses the suffix ṇic, which will come before śap. This is the same suffix used by causal verbs:

  • सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच्। ३.१.२५
    satyāpapāśarūpavīṇātūlaślokasenālomatvacavarmavarṇacūrṇacurādibhyo ṇic (3.1.25)
    satyāpa̐-pāśa-rūpa-vīṇā-tūla-śloka-senā-loma-tvaca-varma-varṇa-cūrṇa-curādibhyaḥ ṇic
    [The suffix] ṇic is added after satyāpa̐, pāśa, rūpa, vīṇā, tūla, śloka, senā, loma, tvaca̐, varma, varṇa, cūrṇa, and [the dhātus in] the list starting with cur;

  • हेतुमति च। ३.१.२६
    hetumati ca (3.1.26)
    hetumati ca
    and likewise in the sense of causal action.

Review

We can now contiue our prakriyā a few more steps:

  1. ṇīñ1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
  2. ṇī1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. 6.1.65 ṇo naḥ
  4. nī la̐ṭ3.2.123 vartamāne laṭ
  5. nī l1.3.2 upadeśe'janunāsika it
    1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  6. nī tip3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  7. nī ti1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  8. nī śap ti3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  9. nī a ti1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ

Our verb is almost ready. In the next lesson, we will learn the last few rules we need to complete the prakriyā and get our finished verb.