In the previous lesson, we noticed a small problem with one of our prakriyās. When using an ātmanepada suffix, what we expect is te, but what we actually receive is ta. This ending will give us the incorrect nayata instead of the correct nayate.

How do we ensure that our ending is correct? The answer is a set of rules near the end of adhyāya 3 of the Aṣṭādhyāyī. These rules transform the basic endings in the tiṅ pratyāhāra to suit the specific semantics we wish to express. We can call the process of applying these rules tiṅ-siddhi (“tiṅ completion”).

As you read the rules below, keep this critical paribhāṣā in mind:

  • स्थानिवदादेशो ऽनल्विधौ। १.१.५६
    sthānivadādeśo 'nalvidhau (1.1.56)
    sthānivat ādeśaḥ an-al-vidhau
    An ādeśa (replacement) is [treated] like its sthānin (replaced term) [in terms of the properties it inherits, etc.], excluding rules that concern a single sound.

This is an atideśa (“analogy,” “extension”) rule. The idea is that even if the suffix ta replaces laṭ, ta should still be treated as if it were laṭ.

Creating laṭ ātmanepada suffixes

Using rule 1.1.56 (sthānivadādeśo'nalvidhau) above, we can transform the basic endings in the tiṅ pratyāhāra into the form we expect. First, we have this adhikāra, which we saw earlier:

  • लस्य। ३.४.७७
    lasya (3.4.77)
    la is replaced by …

To convert our ātmanepada suffixes to the right form, we need to first define a new term:

  • अचोऽन्त्यादि टि। १.१.६४
    aco'ntyādi ṭi (1.1.64)
    acaḥ antya-ādi ṭi
    From the last vowel onward [is called] ṭi.

Now we can use this term to create the changes we need:

  • टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे। ३.४.७९
    ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere (3.4.79)
    ṭitaḥ ātmanepadānām ṭeḥ e
    For the ātmanepada endings of a la that is ṭit, ṭi is replaced by e,

  • थासस्से। ३.४.८०
    thāsasse (3.4.80)
    thāsaḥ se
    [but] thās is replaced by se.

Simply, rule 3.4.79 means that for each ṭit ending, we replace all letters from the last vowel onward with e. Rule 3.4.80 is an exception for the ending thās.

la̐ṭ is ṭit by rule 1.3.3 (halantyam). And even if laṭ has been replaced by ta, rule 3.4.79 still applies due to rule 1.1.56 (sthānivadādeśo'nalvidhau).

By applying rules 3.4.79 and 3.4.80, we get the following results:

  • त आताम् झ थास् आथाम् ध्वम् इट् वहि महिङ्
    ta ātām jha thās āthām dhvam iṭ vahi mahiṅ
    (default endings)

  • → ते आते झे से आथे ध्वे ए वहे महे
    → te āte jhe se āthe dhve e vahe mahe
    (after 3.4.79 and 3.4.80)

Rule 3.4.81 to 3.4.112 are all transformation rules similar to the ones above. We don't have any plans to cover them, but if you are interested, let us know and we'll add them.

Some extra saṃjñās

At the end of this section, there are four rules that add some extra saṃjñās to our endings:

  • तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्। ३.४.११३
    tiṅśitsārvadhātukam (3.4.113)
    tiṅ-śit sārvadhātukam
    tiṅ suffixes and śit (with ś as an it) kṛt suffixes are called sārvadhātukam.

  • आर्धधातुकं शेषः। ३.४.११४
    ārdhadhātukaṃ śeṣaḥ (3.4.114)
    ārdhadhātukam śeṣaḥ
    All others are called ārdhadhātuka.

  • लिट् च। ३.४.११५
    liṭ ca (3.4.115)
    liṭ ca
    And liṭ [is also called ārdhadhātuka],

  • लिङाशिषि। ३.४.११६
    liṅāśiṣi (3.4.116)
    liṅ āśiṣi
    [as well as] liṅ in the sense of āśīḥ (benediction).

Like parasmaipada and ātmanepada, sārvadhātuka and ārdhadhātuka refer to complex concepts that are hard to summarize concisely. So let's pause our discussion here and continue in the next lesson.


The rules in this section of the Aṣṭādhyāyī transform our basic set of verb endings into the precise endings we need for our specific lakāra.

In the next lesson, we will examine what the term sārvadhātuka means and what implications it has for our prakriyā.