Verb Classes


After our study of the present tense verbs, we started to consider some verb forms that can be created without knowing a verb's class. In fact, there are many such forms: the gerund, the past participles, the FPP, all passive verbs, and so on. When, then, is it important to know a verb's class? This section answers that question. Each of the verb forms featured here requires you to know a verb root's class.

This section deals with two main subjects: the six remaining verb classes and the three remaining class-related forms.

The other verb classes

All verb roots are sorted by two pieces of information: their class number and whether they are parasmaipada or ātmanepada verbs. Although we have already studied parasmaipada and ātmanepada, we have only studied four of the ten verb classes. Most of the Sanskrit verbs are in the simple verb classes, but the most common and useful verbs are usually from the other six classes. To fix that situation, we'll study five of the remaining six classes in this section of the chapter.

Other verb forms

We will also study some of the other forms. These forms use the ordinary verb stem, and there are four of them:

We've already studied the present tense, so we'll study the other three in this chapter. That might sound overwhelming, but the truth is that these forms are quite self-consistent. We will not have to memorize too much.