Case 7: "in"

Also known as: the locative case, saptamī vibhakti ("seventh case")

Introduction

Case 7 represents the location or context of an action. The "location" aspect is much more common, and it can be translated by the words "in" and "on."

The "context" aspect, however, is also important. You should make sure to remember it!

Case 7 can by translated by many different terms: "in," "between" (in two things), "among" (in the plural), "on," "within," and "with regard to."

Inflection

Now that we have studied all eight of the Sanskrit noun cases, we can complete our table and see all 24 forms that the masculine -a nouns take.

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Remember, the neuter -a nouns differ in cases 1, 2, and 8 only. To review, here are its forms:

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Pronouns

Here, we bring our discussion of the three common Sanskrit pronouns to a close:

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Sandhi: -n duplication

You can see a new sandhi rule in the examples below. Take a look:

Based on these examples, the rule seems to be this:

-n, when following a short vowel, is doubled when followed by a vowel. [Version 1]

Unfortunately, most textbooks stop here. Why does this odd change occur?

Think back to the rules final -n sandhi, which we analyzed many lessons ago. The basis of our analysis was that we could think of final -n as an old *-ns, where * indicates a hypothetical form. This trick can still come in handy. Let's rewrite the examples above using the *-ns ending:

No sandhi changes have been applied here. However, note that these altered examples have the same meter as the examples affected by sandhi! This seems to be the cause of the change. So, we could create this more intuitive rule instead:

Final -n duplicates to match the meter produced by the *-ns ending. [Version 2]

-n does not duplicate after a long vowel because there is no need; the meter stays the same. But -n has to duplicate after a short vowel to create a heavy syllable and match the results produced by the hypothetical ending.