prakriyā

At last, we are ready to complete our prakriyā. Using everything we've learned in the previous lessons, we can now fully derive the word nayati. And with the help of three new rules, we can derive all eighteen of the forms of in kartari prayoga with laṭ-lakāra.

Our first prakriyā

Our intended semantics are of leading someone. We want to express this for some third-party agent and express a sense of the present tense.

Based on those semantics, we select a root. We start with the dhātuṇīñ as given in the Dhātupāṭha:

  • णीञ् प्रापणे। १.१०४९
    ṇīñ prāpaṇe (1.1049)
    in the sense of obtaining or leading

We then apply rules to remove the it letters and obtain natva of the initial :

  1. ṇīñ1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
  2. ṇī1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. 6.1.65 ṇo naḥ

We can then add la̐ṭ to denote the present tense:

  1. nī la̐ṭ3.2.123 vartamāne laṭ

This is then replaced with the appropriate ending, according to our semantic conditions:

  1. nī l1.3.2 upadeśe'janunāsika it
    1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  2. nī tip3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  3. nī ti1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ

Then we introduce the appropriate vikaraṇa:

  1. nī śap ti3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  2. nī a ti1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ

Finally, we apply the necessary sound changes:

  1. ne a ti7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  2. nayati6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

Here is our complete prakriyā from start to finish:

  1. ṇīñ1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
  2. ṇī1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. 6.1.65 ṇo naḥ
  4. nī la̐ṭ3.2.123 vartamāne laṭ
  5. nī l1.3.2 upadeśe'janunāsika it
    1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  6. nī tip3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  7. nī ti1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  8. nī śap ti3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  9. nī a ti1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  10. ne a ti7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  11. nayati6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

Some miscellaneous rules

Here are a few miscellaneous rules that we will refer to further below. First, a simple one:

  • लोपो व्योर्वलि। ६.१.६६
    lopo vyorvali (6.1.66)
    lopaḥ v-yoḥ vali
    The letters v and y are replaced with lopa when followed by a val sound (i.e. any consonant except y).

Next, a rule that depends on several terms from anuvṛtti:

  • ekaḥ pūrvaparayoḥ (“A single replaces the previous and following”)

  • apadāntāt (“non-word-final”)

  • para-rūpam (“the form of the second”)

  • aci (“when a vowel follows”)

  • अतो गुणे। ६.१.९७
    ato guṇe (6.1.97)
    ataḥ guṇe
    [Non-word-final] a when followed by a guṇa [vowel] are both replaced with the guṇa (i.e. the a is deleted).

Then rule 7.1.3, which replaces the jh in jhi and jha. Rule 7.1.3 uses pratyayādīnām (“of the beginning of a pratyaya”) by anuvṛtti:

  • झोऽन्तः। ७.१.३
    jho'ntaḥ (7.1.3)
    jhaḥ antaḥ
    The [initial] jh [of a pratyaya] is replaced with ant.

Why does Pāṇini use jh in the first place? It is because some verbs will use replacements other than ant. But for now, that's a minor point.

Finally, we have two rules that inherit sārvadhātuke (“when a sārvadhātuka follows”) by anuvṛtti and aṅgasya (“of an aṅga”) from an adhikāra rule. Rule 7.2.81 also inherits ataḥ (“after a”) by anuvṛtti:

  • आतो ङितः। ७.२.८१
    āto ṅitaḥ (7.2.81)
    ātaḥ ṅitaḥ
    [After a], the ā [of a following] ṅit [sārvadhātuka is replaced with iy].

  • अतो दीर्घो यञि। ७.३.१०१
    ato dīrgho yañi (7.3.101)
    ataḥ dīrghaḥ yañi
    The final a of an aṅga is replaced with dīrgha (long) when followed by a yañ sound.

For the specific usages of these two rules, see the prakriyās further below.

and la̐ṭ (parasmaipada)

Now let's derive the other eight forms of in laṭ with parasmaipada endings.

nayataḥ is like nayati, with some extra sandhi rules from the asiddha section:

  1. nī tas3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī śap tas3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  3. nī a tas1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  4. ne a tas7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  5. nay a tas6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
  6. nayata ru̐8.2.66 sasajuṣo ruḥ
  7. nayataḥ8.3.15 kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ

nayanti is like nayati, but there are some extra rules to modify jhi. Rule 6.1.97 (ato guṇe) deletes the extra a. Note the rules from the asiddha section, which apply then revert a sandhi change:

  1. nī jhi3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī śap jhi3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  3. nī a jhi1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  4. nī a anti7.1.3 jho'ntaḥ
  5. ne a anti7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  6. nay a anti6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
  7. nay anti6.1.97 ato guṇe
  8. nay aṃti8.3.24 naścāpadāntasya jhali
  9. nayanti8.4.58 anusvārasya yayi parasavarṇaḥ

nayasi is like nayati, nayathaḥ like nayataḥ, and nayatha like nayati again. Then we come to nayāmi, which lengthens the vowel of the aṅga:

  1. nī mip3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī mi1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. nī śap mi3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  4. nī a mi1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  5. ne a mi7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  6. nay a mi6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
  7. nayāmi7.3.101 ato dīrgho yañi

nayāvaḥ is like nayāmi, with some extra sandhi rules from the asiddha section:

  1. nī vas3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī śap vas3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  3. nī a vas1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  4. ne a vas7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  5. ne ā vas7.3.101 ato dīrgho yañi
  6. nay ā vas6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
  7. nay ā va ru̐8.2.66 sasajuṣo ruḥ
  8. nayāvaḥ8.3.15 kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ

And nayāmaḥ is like nayāvaḥ.

and la̐ṭ (ātmanepada)

The prakriyās with ātmanepada endings are similar:

  1. nī ta1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
    3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī te3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere
  3. nī śap te3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  4. nī a te1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  5. ne a te7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  6. nayate6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

For nayete, the rules 7.2.81 (āto ṅitaḥ) and 6.1.66 (lopo vyorvali) apply to change āte to ite:

  1. nī ātām1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
    3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī āte3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere
  3. nī śap āte3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  4. nī a āte1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  5. nī a iy te7.2.81 āto ṅitaḥ
  6. nī a i te6.1.66 lopo vyorvali
  7. ne a i te7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  8. nay a i te6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
  9. nayete6.1.87 ādguṇaḥ

nayante is like nayanti, but with an ātmanepada ending instead. For nayase, we replace the ending with 3.4.80 (thāsasse) then continue as normal:

  1. nī thās1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
    3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī se3.4.80 thāsasse
  3. nī śap se3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  4. nī a se1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  5. ne a se7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  6. nayase6.1.87 ādguṇaḥ

nayethe is like nayete, and nayadhve is like nayate. naye is a little tricker and requires the application of rule 6.1.97 (ato guṇe):

  1. nī iṭ1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
    3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī i1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. nī e3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere
  4. nī śap e3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  5. nī a e1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  6. ne a e7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  7. nay a e6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
  8. naye6.1.97 ato guṇe

nayāvahe is like nayāvaḥ but without the asiddha rules:

  1. nī vahi3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
  2. nī vahe3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere
  3. nī śap vahe3.4.113 tiṅśitsārvadhātukam
    3.1.68 kartari śap
  4. nī a vahe1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  5. ne a vahe7.3.84 sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ
  6. ne ā vahe7.3.101 ato dīrgho yañi
  7. nayāvahe6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

And nayāmahe is like nayāvahe.