# prakriyā

At last, we are ready to complete our prakriyā. Using everything we've learned in the previous lessons, we can now fully derive the word nayati. And with the help of three new rules, we can derive all eighteen of the forms of in kartari prayoga with laṭ-lakāra.

Here are the basic steps we will follow:

1. Choose a dhātu from the Dhātupāṭha.

2. Choose the right lakāra.

4. Replace the lakāra with the appropriate tiṅ ending.

5. Add a vikaraṇa as needed.

6. Apply guṇa changes as needed.

7. Apply sandhi rules.

## Our first prakriyā

We wish to express the idea of leading someone. We want to express this for some third-party agent and express a sense of the present tense.

Based on these meaning conditions, we select a root. We start with the dhātu ṇīñ as given in the Dhātupāṭha:

• णीञ् प्रापणे। १.१०४९
ṇīñ prāpaṇe (1.1049)
in the sense of obtaining or leading

We then apply rules to remove the it letters and obtain natva of the initial :

1. ṇīñ1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
2. ṇī1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
3. 6.1.65 ṇo naḥ

We can then add la̐ṭ to denote the present tense:

1. nī la̐ṭ3.2.123 vartamāne laṭ

This is then replaced with the appropriate ending, according to our semantic conditions:

1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
2. nī tip3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
3. nī ti1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ

Then we introduce the appropriate vikaraṇa:

3.1.68 kartari śap
2. nī a ti1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ

Finally, we apply the necessary sound changes:

2. nayati6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

Here is our complete prakriyā from start to finish:

1. ṇīñ1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
2. ṇī1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
3. 6.1.65 ṇo naḥ
4. nī la̐ṭ3.2.123 vartamāne laṭ
1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
6. nī tip3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
7. nī ti1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
3.1.68 kartari śap
9. nī a ti1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
11. nayati6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

A more experienced grammarian will skip the low-level steps and use something like this:

1. ṇīñ1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
2. nī la̐ṭ3.2.123 vartamāne laṭ
3. nī ti3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
4. nī śap ti3.1.68 kartari śap
6. nayati6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

## Some miscellaneous rules

Here are a few miscellaneous rules that we will refer to further below. First, a simple one:

• लोपो व्योर्वलि। ६.१.६६
lopo vyorvali (6.1.66)
lopaḥ v-yoḥ vali
The letters v and y are replaced with lopa when followed by a val sound (i.e. any consonant except y).

Next, a rule that depends on several terms from anuvṛtti:

• ekaḥ pūrvaparayoḥ (“A single replaces the previous and following”)

• para-rūpam (“the form of the second”)

• aci (“when a vowel follows”)

• अतो गुणे। ६.१.९७
ato guṇe (6.1.97)
ataḥ guṇe
[Non-word-final] a and a following guṇa [vowel] are both replaced with the guṇa (i.e. the a is deleted).

Then rule 7.1.3, which replaces the jh in jhi and jha. Rule 7.1.3 uses pratyayādīnām (“of the beginning of a pratyaya”) by anuvṛtti:

• झोऽन्तः। ७.१.३
jho'ntaḥ (7.1.3)
jhaḥ antaḥ
The [initial] jh [of a pratyaya] is replaced with ant.

Why does Pāṇini use jh in the first place? It is because some verbs will use replacements other than ant. But for now, that's a minor point.

Finally, we have two rules that inherit sārvadhātuke (“when a sārvadhātuka follows”) by anuvṛtti and aṅgasya (“of an aṅga”) from an adhikāra rule. Rule 7.2.81 also inherits ataḥ (“after a”) by anuvṛtti:

• आतो ङितः। ७.२.८१
āto ṅitaḥ (7.2.81)
ātaḥ ṅitaḥ
[After a], the ā [of a following] ṅit [sārvadhātuka is replaced with iy].

• अतो दीर्घो यञि। ७.३.१०१
ato dīrgho yañi (7.3.101)
ataḥ dīrghaḥ yañi
The final a of an aṅga is replaced with dīrgha (long) when followed by a yañ sound.

For the specific usages of these two rules, see the prakriyās further below.

Now let's derive the other eight forms of in laṭ with parasmaipada endings.

nayataḥ is like nayati, with some extra sandhi rules from the asiddha section:

1. nī tas3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
3.1.68 kartari śap
3. nī a tas1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
5. nay a tas6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
6. nayata ru̐8.2.66 sasajuṣo ruḥ
7. nayataḥ8.3.15 kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ

nayanti is like nayati, but there are some extra rules to modify jhi. Rule 6.1.97 (ato guṇe) deletes the extra a. Note the rules from the asiddha section, which apply then revert a sandhi change:

1. nī jhi3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
3.1.68 kartari śap
3. nī a jhi1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
4. nī a anti7.1.3 jho'ntaḥ
6. nay a anti6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
7. nay anti6.1.97 ato guṇe
9. nayanti8.4.58 anusvārasya yayi parasavarṇaḥ

nayasi is like nayati, nayathaḥ like nayataḥ, and nayatha like nayati again. Then we come to nayāmi, which lengthens the vowel of the aṅga:

1. nī mip3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
2. nī mi1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
3.1.68 kartari śap
4. nī a mi1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
6. nay a mi6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
7. nayāmi7.3.101 ato dīrgho yañi

nayāvaḥ is like nayāmi, with some extra sandhi rules from the asiddha section:

1. nī vas3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
3.1.68 kartari śap
3. nī a vas1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
5. ne ā vas7.3.101 ato dīrgho yañi
6. nay ā vas6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
7. nay ā va ru̐8.2.66 sasajuṣo ruḥ
8. nayāvaḥ8.3.15 kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ

And nayāmaḥ is like nayāvaḥ.

The prakriyās with ātmanepada endings are similar:

1. nī ta1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
2. nī te3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere
3.1.68 kartari śap
4. nī a te1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
6. nayate6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ

For nayete, the rules 7.2.81 (āto ṅitaḥ) and 6.1.66 (lopo vyorvali) apply to change āte to ite:

1. nī ātām1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
2. nī āte3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere
3.1.68 kartari śap
4. nī a āte1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
5. nī a iy te7.2.81 āto ṅitaḥ
6. nī a i te6.1.66 lopo vyorvali
8. nay a i te6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
9. nayete6.1.87 ādguṇaḥ

nayante is like nayanti, but with an ātmanepada ending instead. For nayase, we replace the ending with 3.4.80 (thāsasse) then continue as normal:

1. nī thās1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
2. nī se3.4.80 thāsasse
3.1.68 kartari śap
4. nī a se1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
6. nayase6.1.87 ādguṇaḥ

nayethe is like nayete, and nayadhve is like nayate. naye is a little trickier and requires the application of rule 6.1.97 (ato guṇe):

1. nī iṭ1.3.72 svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyāphale
3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
2. nī i1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
3. nī e3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere
3.1.68 kartari śap
5. nī a e1.3.3 halantyam
1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
7. nay a e6.1.78 eco'yavāyāvaḥ
8. naye6.1.97 ato guṇe

nayāvahe is like nayāvaḥ but without the asiddha rules:

1. nī vahi3.4.78 tiptasjhisipthasthamibvasmastātāṃjhathāsāthāṃdhvamiḍvahimahiṅ
2. nī vahe3.4.79 ṭita ātmanepadānāṃ ṭere