Over the course of the previous lessons, we've started from scratch and built up the basics of the Pāṇinian system. Although the details differ from topic to topic, these fundamental rules and concepts apply to nearly every part of the Aṣṭādhyāyī and will serve as an invaluable foundation as we go forward.

Before we move on, let's take a moment to review what we've learned.

We learned about it letters, which let us concisely add extra information to terms in the grammar:

  • उपदेशे ऽजनुनासिक इत्। १.३.२
    upadeśe 'janunāsika it (1.3.2)
    upadeśe ac anunāsikaḥ it
    In upadeśa, nasal vowels are [called] it.

  • हलन्त्यम्। १.३.३
    halantyam (1.3.3)
    hal antyam
    Final consonants [are called it in upadeśa].

  • न विभक्तौ तुस्माः। १.३.४
    na vibhaktau tusmāḥ (1.3.4)
    na vibhaktau tu-s-māḥ
    The tu sounds, s, and m are not [called it in upadeśa] when they are in a vibhakti (nominal case ending).

  • आदिर्ञिटुडवः। १.३.५
    ādirñiṭuḍavaḥ (1.3.5)
    ādiḥ ñi-ṭu-ḍavaḥ
    Initial ñi, ṭu, and ḍu [are called it in upadeśa].

  • षः प्रत्ययस्य। १.३.६
    ṣaḥ pratyayasya (1.3.6)
    ṣaḥ pratyayasya
    The [initial] of a pratyaya (suffix) [is called it in upadeśa].

  • चुटू। १.३.७
    cuṭū (1.3.7)
    The [initial] cu sounds and ṭu sounds [of a pratyaya are called it in upadeśa].

  • लशक्वतद्धिते। १.३.८
    laśakvataddhite (1.3.8)
    la-śa-ku a-taddhite
    The [initial] l, ś, and the ku sounds [of a pratyaya are called it in upadeśa] when not in a taddhita (nominal suffix).

  • तस्य लोपः। १.३.९
    tasya lopaḥ (1.3.9)
    tasya lopaḥ
    It [i.e. any it letter] undergoes lopa.

By using these it sounds, we can then create pratyāhāras and define a simple notation for describing savarṇa letters:

  • तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम्। १.१.९
    tulyāsyaprayatnaṃ savarṇam (1.1.9)
    tulya-āsya-prayatnam savarnam
    [Sounds with] the same āsya (place of articulation) and prayatna (articulatory effort) are called savarṇa (similar).

  • नाज्झलौ। १.१.१०
    nājjhalau (1.1.10)
    na ac-halau
    But vowels and consonants are not [savarṇa with each other].

  • स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा। १.१.६८
    svaṃ rūpaṃ śabdasyāśabdasaṃjñā (1.1.68)
    svam rūpam śabdasya a-śabda-saṃjñā
    A word [denotes] its own form if it is not a definition (saṃjñā).

  • अणुदित् सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः। १.१.६९
    aṇudit savarṇasya cāpratyayaḥ (1.1.69)
    aṇ-udit savarṇasya ca a-pratyayaḥ
    The aṇ sounds and udit [sounds] also [denote] their savarṇa [sounds], if they are not pratyaya (suffixes).

  • तपरस्तत्कालस्य। १.१.७०
    taparastatkālasya (1.1.70)
    ta-paraḥ tat-kālasya
    [A sound] bordered by t [refers to the sound] with that duration.

We then created a variety of sandhi rules by applying these fundamental paribhāṣā rules:

  • षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा। १.१.४९
    ṣaṣṭhī sthāneyogā (1.1.49)
    ṣaṣṭhī sthāne-yogā
    The sixth case can signify sthāne (in the place of).

  • स्थाने ऽन्तरतमः। १.१.५०
    sthāne 'ntaratamaḥ (1.1.50)
    sthāne antaratamaḥ
    In substitution, the closest [is preferred].

  • उरण्रपरः। १.१.५१
    uraṇraparaḥ (1.1.51)
    uḥ aṇ ra-paraḥ
    [In substitution,] an aṇ vowel that replaces an is followed by r.

  • तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य। १.१.६६
    tasminniti nirdiṣṭe pūrvasya (1.1.66)
    tasmin iti nirdiṣṭe pūrvasya
    When the seventh case is specified, [substitution is] of the previous.

  • तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य। १.१.६७
    tasmādityuttarasya (1.1.67)
    tasmāt iti uttarasya
    When the fifth case [is specified, substitution is] of the next.

  • यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्। १.३.१०
    yathāsaṃkhyamanudeśaḥ samānām (1.3.10)
    yathā-saṃkhyam anudeśaḥ samānām
    Substitution of [items with] the same [size] is according to their relative number.

We also learned about the basic types of rules: vidhi (operation), saṃjñā (definition), adhikāra (government), paribhāṣā (interpretation), and a fifth type called atideśa (analogy) that we will use later on.

Finally, we learned about the basics of a prakriyā and how we should choose which rules to apply during the derivation. We will learn much more about this in the lessons to come.