avyayībhāva

The avyayībhāva is a compound whose first member is an avyaya (uninflected word). An example:

  • यथाशक्ति
    yathāśakti
    according to (one's) power

Defining the avyayībhāva

We first introduce another adhikāra:

  • अव्ययीभावः। २.१.५
    avyayībhāvaḥ (2.1.5)
    avyayībhāvaḥ
    ... is an avyayībhāva.

Then the definition begins. First, the general case:

  • अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्ध्य्व्यृद्ध्य्-अर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रति-शब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्-यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्य-सादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु। २.१.६
    avyayaṃ vibhaktisamīpasamṛddhyvyṛddhy-arthābhāvātyayāsamprati-śabdaprādurbhāvapaścād-yathānupūrvyayaugapadya-sādṛśyasampattisākalyāntavacaneṣu (2.1.6)
    avyayam vibhakti-samīpa-samṛddhi-vyṛddhi-arthābhāva-atyaya-asamprati-śabdaprādurbhāva-paścāt-yathā-anupūrvya-yaugapadya-sādṛśya-sampatti-sākalya-antavacaneṣu
    An avyaya [used with a related subanta becomes an avyayībhāva samāsa] when the avyaya has the sense of: a vibhakti, nearness, prosperity, loss, absence, expiry, non-presence, appearance of a word, later, accordance, sequence, simultaneity, similarity, entirety, or limit.

Rule 2.1.6 is massive and allows examples like upakumbham (“near the pot”), nirmakṣikam (“without flies”), and satṛṇam (“along with the grass”). The other rules for an avyayībhāva are more straightforward:

  • यथासादृश्ये। २.१.७
    yathāsādṛśye (2.1.7)
    yathā a-sādṛśye
    yathā when not in the sense of sādṛśya (similarity) [becomes an avyayībhāva samāsa when used with a related subanta].

  • यावदवधारणे। २.१.८
    yāvadavadhāraṇe (2.1.8)
    yāvat avadhāraṇe
    Likewise for yāvat in the sense of equal quantity;

  • सुप्प्रतिणा मात्रार्थे। २.१.९
    suppratiṇā mātrārthe (2.1.9)
    sup pratiṇā mātra-arthe
    prati as the second member when in the sense of “a small amount”;

  • अक्षशलाकासंख्याः परिणा। २.१.१०
    akṣaśalākāsaṃkhyāḥ pariṇā (2.1.10)
    akṣa-śalākā-saṃkhyāḥ pariṇā
    and the words akṣa (dice), śalākā (stick), and numerals with the word pari.

Examples:

  • यथावृद्धम् ब्राह्मणान् आमन्त्रयस्व
    yathāvṛddham brāhmaṇān āmantrayasva
    Invite the brahmins who are old (vṛddha)
    (2.1.7)

  • यावत्फलम्
    yāvatphalam
    as many as there are fruits
    (2.1.8)

  • सूपप्रति
    sūpaprati
    a little bit of soup
    (2.1.9)

  • अक्षपरि
    akṣapari
    missed by (one) die
    (2.1.10)