kta

In this lesson, we will learn about a slightly more complicated pratyaya: the kta-pratyaya.

kta has a k as an it, which means that it prevents guṇa changes. Additionally, kta causes certain dhātus to undergo a change called samprasāraṇa, which we describe further below.

Defining the pratyaya

The definition of kta is somewhat roundabout. First, both kta and ktavatu̐ are labeled as niṣṭhā by this saṃjñā rule:

  • क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा। १.१.२६
    ktaktavatū niṣṭhā (1.1.26)
    kta-ktavatū niṣṭhā
    The (pratyayas) kta and ktavatu̐ are called niṣṭhā.

Through this definition, both of these pratyayas are defined as referring to the past tense in chapter 3:

  • भूते। ३.२.८४
    bhūte (3.2.84)
    bhūte
    In the past tense, …

  • निष्ठा। ३.२.१०२
    niṣṭhā (3.2.102)
    niṣṭhā
    The niṣṭhā pratyayas [are used in the sense of the past tense].

However, kta (but not ktavatu̐) additionally implies bhāve or karmaṇi prayoga (roughly, stative or passive action), through rule 3.4.70, which we saw in the lesson on kṛtya-pratyayas:

  • तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः। ३.४.७०
    tayoreva kṛtyaktakhalarthāḥ (3.4.70)
    tayoḥ eva kṛtya-kta-khal-arthāḥ
    kṛtya, kta, and [a pratyaya] having the meaning of khal express these two [i.e. karmaṇi and bhāve prayoga].

As well as some minor usages in kartari prayoga:

  • आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च। ३.४.७१
    ādikarmaṇi ktaḥ kartari ca (3.4.71)
    ādi-karmaṇi ktaḥ kartari ca
    In [the sense of] the start of an action, kta also expresses kartari prayoga.

  • गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च। ३.४.७२
    gatyarthākarmakaśliṣaśīṅsthāsavasajanaruhajīryatibhyaśca (3.4.72)
    gatyartha-akarmaka-śliṣa̐-śīṅ-sthā-āsa̐-vasa̐-jana̐-ruha̐-jīryatibhyaḥ ca
    Likewise after [dhātus] that imply motion or are intransitive, as well as the [dhātus] śliṣ, śī, sthā, ās, vas, jan, ruh, and jṝ.

Sound changes

As a reminder, kṛt-pratyayas generally cause a guṇa change based on rule 7.3.84:

  • सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः। ७.३.८४
    sārvadhātukārdhadhātukayoḥ (7.3.84)
    sārvadhātuka-ārdhadhātukayoḥ
    [An aṅga is replaced with guṇa] when followed by a sārvadhātuka or ārdhadhātuka suffix.

But since kta has k as an it — or to put it another way, because kta is kit — this change is blocked by rule 1.1.5:

  • क्ङिति च। १.१.५
    kṅiti ca (1.1.5)
    k-ṅiti ca
    [guṇa and vṛddhi replace the ik vowels, but not] when followed by [terms that are] kit or ṅit.

So in general, the vowel change here is simple: there isn't one! But in addition to this general behavior, kit pratyayas can also cause specific dhātus to undergo extra changes.

One change is that certain roots ending in a nasal sound lose that nasal sound:

  • अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि क्ङिति। ६.४.३७
    anudāttopadeśavanatitanotyādīnāmanunāsikalopo jhali kṅiti (6.4.37)
    anudātta-upadeśa-vanati-tanoti-ādīnām anunāsika-lopaḥ jhali k-ṅiti
    A dhātu with an anudātta vowel in upadeśa, as well as [the dhātu] van and [the dhātus]in the list starting with tan, lose their final anunāsika when followed by a kit or ṅit [pratyaya] starting with a jhal consonant.

An example:

  • गम् + त → गत
    gam + ta → gata
    gone (to)

Another change is sometimes called samprasāraṇa. Through this process, the semivowel in a dhātu first becomes a vowel:

  • इग्यणः सम्प्रसारणम्। १.१.४५
    igyaṇaḥ samprasāraṇam (1.1.45)
    ik yaṇaḥ samprasāraṇam
    The substitution of an ik sound in place of a yaṇ sound is called samprasāraṇa.

And then deletes the following vowel, through a rule of ac-sandhi:

  • सम्प्रसारणाच्च। ६.१.१०८
    samprasāraṇācca (6.1.108)
    samprasāraṇāt ca
    Additionoally, [the first of two vowels is retained] when the first vowel is samprasāraṇa.

Here are some examples of the change:

  • वच् + त → उअच् + त → उच् + त
    vac + ta → uac + ta → uc + ta
    spoken

  • यज् + त → इअज् + त → इज् + त
    yaj + ta → iaj + ta → ij + ta
    sacrificed

And here are the dhātus that use samprasāraṇa when a kit pratyaya follows:

  • वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति। ६.१.१५
    vacisvapiyajādīnāṃ kiti (6.1.15)
    vaci̐-svapi̐-yajādīnām kiti
    [The dhātus] vac, svap, and those in the list beginning with yaj [undergo samprasāraṇa] when followed by a kit [pratyaya].

  • ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च। ६.१.१६
    grahijyāvayivyadhivaṣṭivicativṛścatipṛcchatibhṛjjatīnāṃ ṅiti ca (6.1.16)
    grahi̐-jyā-vayi̐-vyadhi̐-vaṣṭi-vicati-vṛścati-pṛcchati-bhṛjjatīnām ṅiti ca
    This applies to grah, jyā, vay as a substitution for veñ, vyadh, vaś, vyac, vrasc, pracch, and bhrasj as well, which all also make the same change when followed by a ṅit [pratyaya].

Sample prakriyās

First, an example with kṛ. Since kṛ has an anudātta accent in its upadeśa form, it is prevented from using the connecting iṭ vowel by rule 7.2.10:

  1. ḍukṛñ1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
  2. kṛ1.3.3 halantyam
    1.3.5 ādirñiṭuḍavaḥ
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. kṛ kta3.2.102 niṣṭhā
    3.4.70 tayoreva kṛtyaktakhalarthāḥ
  4. kṛ ta1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  5. kṛta7.2.10 ekāca upadeśe'nudāttāt

Next, an example with gam showing lopa of the final m. gam also has an anudātta accent in its upadeśa form, so it likewise has no connecting iṭ vowel:

  1. gamḷ̐1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
  2. gam1.3.2 upadeśe'janunāsika it
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. gam kta3.2.102 niṣṭhā
    3.4.72 gatyarthākarmakaśliṣaśīṅsthāsavasajanaruhajīryatibhyaśca
  4. gam ta1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  5. gam ta7.2.10 ekāca upadeśe'nudāttāt
  6. gata6.4.98 gamahanajanakhanaghasāṃ lopaḥ kṅityanaṅi

Finally, an example with sup showing samprasāraṇa. As in the examples above, iṭ is not used:

  1. ñiṣvapa̐1.3.1 bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ
  2. ṣvap1.3.2 upadeśe'janunāsika it
    1.3.5 ādirñiṭuḍavaḥ
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  3. svap6.1.64 dhātvādeḥ ṣaḥ saḥ
  4. svap kta3.2.102 niṣṭhā
    3.4.72 gatyarthākarmakaśliṣaśīṅsthāsavasajanaruhajīryatibhyaśca
  5. svap ta1.3.8 laśakvataddhite
    1.3.9 tasya lopaḥ
  6. svap ta7.2.10 ekāca upadeśe'nudāttāt
  7. suap ta6.1.15 vacisvapiyajādināṃ kiti
  8. supta6.1.108 samprasāraṇācca