, , and nouns

Stems that end in , , and are almost always feminine. They follow the pattern of the feminine pronoun, which we will also study here. Since the stems are the most regular and the stems are the least regular, we will study them in reverse order:

stems

Among the three stem types above, the stems are the most regular. Here is how they behave:

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The dual endings are completely regular. The plural endings are mostly regular. The exception is the case 2 plural ending, which is just .

The singular endings are trickier:

Note that the case 1 singular uses a visarga. Note, too, that the case 8 singular uses a short vowel. And, note that mv is written as ṃv.

stems

the stems are almost as regular as the stems. Here is how they behave:

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The endings here are the same as the ones above. But, note that the case 1 singular does not use a visarga.

stems

The stems are still quite regular, but they do have some odd features:

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The plural endings follow the pattern of the nouns above. The singular and dual forms, however, are much trickier. The difference is in the stem used:

Also note the use of the -e ending, which appears in both the singular and the dual.

The feminine tad

The feminine version of tad is nearly identical to the stems:

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As before, there are multiple stems:

As before, the -e ending appears in the dual. The one major difference is that the case 6 plural is tāsām, not *tānām