Now we will study the PPP.


Take a look at the progression below:

Each line of this progression changes the verb very slightly, and each line relates to one of the P's in PPP. The first P here represents past, since the man was remembered before the lion sees him. The second P here represents passive, since although we know that the man was remembered, we do not know who remembered him. The third P, as you might remember, represents the concept of a "participle," which we will study later on. The PPP is represented above as the word "remember."

Note that even though the sentence's tense might change, the PPP remains constant. This is true both in English and in Sanskrit:

Using the PPP

Essentially, the PPP is an adjective. Although it has the properties of a verb — it has a tense and can be described by the different noun cases — it has a person, number, and gender. Note how it is used in these (technically) verbless sentences:

Non-passive meaning

Even though the PPP is usually a passive verb, it sometimes has non-passive meaning. This is especially true for verbs that mean "go."

As a noun

The PPP can also be a noun, just as the adjective sundara can mean both "beautiful" and "the beautiful one." This is one of the most powerful features of the PPP.


The PPP is formed by adding ta to the end of a verb root. When we do so, we should follow the same rules as the tvā suffix of the gerund. Verbs with prefixes still use ta, and they still follow the rules of tvā. And, some roots will use the "connecting i" vowel that we talked about earlier.

They follow the same sandhi rules, too:

Some verbs — usually those whose roots end in a long vowel (ā, ī, ū, or ) — use na instead. But such forms are more uncommon.

The changes in tṝ and pṝ were discussed when we discussed the gerund.

As always, internal sandhi is extremely important. Both the gerund and the PPP use the same rules, and there are many that we haven't covered. But, we can learn those along the way.

Differences from the gerund

The verb kṛ normally becomes kṛta; but, it becomes skṛta when it has pari or sam for a prefix. Thus, we have saṃskṛta, not *saṃkṛta.