The blessing mood

Also known as: the benedictive, āśīḥ (“hope, wish”), āśīrliṅ

The blessing mood usually expresses a blessing or prayer:

  • शुभं भूयात्
    śubhaṃ bhūyāt
    May there be welfare (to all).

Making the stem

Roots that use parasmaipada endings generally use the same -ya stem that we use in karmaṇi and bhāve prayoga for the special tense-moods:

  • गम् → गम्य → गम्यात्
    gam → gamya → gamyāt
    go → go → may (someone) go

  • वच् → उच्य → उच्यात्
    vac → ucya → ucyāt
    speak → speak → may (someone) speak

But even though these forms use a similar stem, they have the sense of kartari prayoga.

For ātmanepada endings, we strengthen the root but don't add any special suffixes.

Adding endings

Here are the ends we add for parasmaipada roots:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdयात्
yāt
याताम्
yātām
यासुः
yāsuḥ
2ndयाः
yāḥ
यास्तम्
yāstam
यास्त
yāsta
1stयासम्
yāsam
यास्व
yāsva
यास्म
yāsma

These endings are similar to the ones we use for the potential mood. The difference is that we add -yās- to the beginning of each ending.

Here is an example of how to use these endings:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdनीयात्
nīyāt
नीयाताम्
nīyātām
नीयासुः
nīyāsuḥ
2ndनीयाः
nīyāḥ
नीयास्तम्
nīyāstam
नीयास्त
nīyāsta
1stनीयासम्
nīyāsam
नीयास्व
nīyāsva
नीयास्म
nīyāsma

The blessing mood is quite rare, and its ātmanepada forms are even rarer. Here are the ātmanepada endings we use:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdसीष्ट
sīṣṭa
सीयास्ताम्
sīyāstām
सीरन्
sīran
2ndसीष्ठाः
sīṣṭhāḥ
सीयास्थाम्
sīyāsthām
सीध्वम्
sīdhvam
1stसीय
sīya
सीवहि
sīvahi
सीमहि
sīmahi

Again, these endings are similar to the ones we use for the potential mood. The difference is that we add -sīs- to the beginning of each ending. This -sīs becomes -sī- if the ending starts with a voiced sound.

Here is an example of how to use these endings:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdनेषीष्ट
neṣīṣṭa
नेषीयास्ताम्
neṣīyāstām
नेषीरन्
neṣīran
2ndनेषीष्ठाः
neṣīṣṭhāḥ
नेषीयास्थाम्
neṣīyāsthām
नेषीध्वम्
neṣīdhvam
1stनेषीय
neṣīya
नेषीवहि
neṣīvahi
नेषीमहि
neṣīmahi

Note that the first s of these endings changed due to sandhi.

Review

  1. How do we form the parasmaipada stem for this tense-mood?