Also known as: ārdhadhātuka verbs
In the core lessons, we learned that we can change a verb root into a verb stem. And once we have a verb stem, we can add endings to that stem to create a complete verb. In the examples below, note the progression from root to stem to verb:
नी → नेष्य → नेष्यामि
nī → neṣya → neṣyāmi
lead → will lead → I will lead
नी → निनी → निन्युः
nī → ninī → ninyuḥ
lead → led (long ago) → they led (long ago)
We also learned that Sanskrit verbs express five basic kinds of information: person, number, tense-mood, prayoga, and pada.
Sanskrit uses ten different tense-moods. Four of these tense-moods use very similar stems in kartari prayoga, and the stem depends on which verb class a root belongs to:
नी → नय → नयति
nī → naya → nayati
सु → सुनु → सुनोति
su → sunu → sunoti
रुध् → रुणध् → रुणद्धि
rudh → ruṇadh → ruṇaddhi
But the other six tense-moods form their stems in a more general way. We apply the same steps regardless of which verb class a root belongs to:
नी → नेष्यति
nī → neṣyati
सु → सोष्यति
su → soṣyati
रुध् → रोत्स्यति
rudh → rotsyati
In this topic, we will explore these six tense-moods.
Common behavior for the six tense-moods
For the special tense-moods, we use a special stem in karmaṇi prayoga and bhāve prayoga:
You are led.
But for the other tense-moods, we just use ātmanepada endings without using a different stem:
You will lead.
You will be led.
Many verbs will also add an extra i sound between the root and the ending. In the examples below, notice that each verb has an extra i sound:
भू → भविष्यसि (भव्-इ-ष्यसि)
bhū → bhaviṣyasi (bhav-i-ṣyasi)
you will become
स्मृ → स्मरिष्यसि (स्मर्-इ-ष्यसि)
smṛ → smariṣyasi (smar-i-ṣyasi)
you will remember
In traditional grammar, this i is called iṭ. Different roots use iṭ in different ways:
Some roots always use iṭ, and they are called seṭ (sa-iṭ, “with iṭ”) roots.
Other roots don't use iṭ, and they are called aniṭ (an-iṭ, “without iṭ”) roots.
A third group of roots uses iṭ optionally, and they are called veṭ (vā-iṭ, “optional iṭ”) roots.
Finally, roots that end in -e, -ai, or -au will have their last vowel change to -ā:
गै → गास्यति
gai → gāsyati
sing → will sing
How do we express karmaṇi prayoga for the special tense-moods?
How do we express karmaṇi prayoga for the other tense-moods?
What is iṭ?