The command mood

Also known as: the imperative mood, ājñā (“command”), loṭ

The present tense and the command mood use similar endings. So, let's learn about the command mood next.

Basic meaning

The command mood is used for commands. We commonly see the command mood in the second person:

  • नय
    naya
    Lead!

  • नयत
    nayata
    (You all) lead!

But in the first and third persons, it has slightly different meanings:

  • रामो वनं गच्छतु
    rāmo vanaṃ gacchatu
    May Rama go to the forest.

  • किम् करवाणि ते?
    kim karavāṇi te?
    What may I do for you?

Endings

Here are the endings of the command mood as used with the stem naya:

 SingularDualPlural
3rdनयतु
nayatu
नयताम्
nayatām
नयन्तु
nayantu
2ndनय
naya
नयतम्
nayatam
नयत
nayata
1stनयानि
nayāni
नयाव
nayāva
नयाम
nayāma

Notice that the first-person endings still use a long ā. There are other similarities as well: nayati is replaced by nayatu, and nayanti by nayantu.

But there are also some major differences. In particular, notice these five endings:

 SingularDualPlural
3rd
ताम्
tām

2nd
तम्
tam

ta
1st

va

ma

These five endings will repeat in the next two tense-moods.