Also known as: the middle voice
In the previous lesson, we focused on the parasmaipada endings used by the four special tense-moods. In this lesson, we will focus on the ātmanepada endings.
What is ātmanepada?
Sanskrit has two different sets of verb endings: parasmaipada endings and ātmanepada endings. Some roots always use parasmaipada endings, some roots always use ātmanepada endings, and some roots can use both.
For a small number of roots, ātmanepada endings imply that the person performing the action is doing so for their own benefit. Here is the classic example:
देवदत्त ओदनं पचति।
devadatta odanaṃ pacati.
Devadatta cooks rice (for others).
देवदत्त ओदनं पचते।
devadatta odanaṃ pacate.
Devadatta cooks rice (for himself).
In older Sanskrit, this distinction is more meaningful. But in later Sanskrit, there is little to no difference in meaning between these two sets of endings.
The present tense
Here are the ātmanepada endings of the present tense:
First, notice that all of these endings end in -e in the present tense. Also, notice that many of these endings are similar to their parasmaipada counterparts. Here are the similar forms:
The command mood
Here are the endings for the command mood:
As before, focus on these five endings, which the next two tense-moods will mostly reuse:
The ordinary past tense
As before, the forms of the ordinary past tense have an a- prefix:
The first person uses the endings -vahi and -mahi instead of the -vahai and -mahai used above.
The potential mood
As before, the potential mood uses nearly the same endings as the ordinary past tense. And as before, all of these endings start with -ī:
As before, the one exception is the third-person plural ending:
They might lead.
In later Sanskrit, is there a strong difference in meaning between parasmaipada and ātmanepada endings?