-ta and -tavat
In this lesson, we will learn about two more common suffixes.
Also known as: the past passive participle, the PPP, kta
The suffix -ta is important and powerful. When we add it to a root that means “X,” we usually create words that mean “(has) been X-ed.”
Here are some examples of -ta. Note that it causes the same sound changes as -tvā:
नी → नीत
nī → nīta
lead → led
कृ → कृत
kṛ → kṛta
do, make → done, made
-ta usually creates words that express karmaṇi prayoga. In English, we would say that these words have a passive sense:
रामेण शरः कृतः।
rāmeṇa śaraḥ kṛtaḥ.
By Rama, an arrow has been made.
But if the root implies a sense of motion, it has the normal kartari prayoga sense:
गम् → गत
gam → gata
go → (has) gone
And likewise for other roots, especially if they don't have an object:
बुध् → बुद्ध
budh → buddha
awaken → (has) awakened
Finally, there are some roots where -ta has a more general sense:
शक् → शक्त
śak → śakta
be able to → able, capable
Also known as: the past active participle, ktavatu̐
The suffix -tavat has a similar meaning to -ta. When we add it to a root that means “X,” we usually create words that mean “has X-ed.” Here are some examples:
श्रु → श्रुतवत्
śru → śrutavat
hear → has heard
-tavat causes all the same sound changes that -ta does.