-ta and -tavat

In this lesson, we will learn about two more common suffixes.

-ta

Also known as: the past passive participle, the PPP, kta

The suffix -ta is important and powerful. When we add it to a root that means “X,” we usually create words that mean “(has) been X-ed.”

Here are some examples of -ta. Note that it causes the same sound changes as -tvā:

  • नी → नीत
    nī → nīta
    lead → led

  • कृ → कृत
    kṛ → kṛta
    do, make → done, made

-ta usually creates words that express karmaṇi prayoga. In English, we would say that these words have a passive sense:

  • रामेण शरः कृतः
    rāmeṇa śaraḥ kṛtaḥ.
    By Rama, an arrow has been made.

But if the root implies a sense of motion, it has the normal kartari prayoga sense:

  • गम् → गत
    gam → gata
    go → (has) gone

And likewise for other roots, especially if they don't have an object:

  • बुध् → बुद्ध
    budh → buddha
    awaken → (has) awakened

Finally, there are some roots where -ta has a more general sense:

  • शक् → शक्त
    śak → śakta
    be able to → able, capable

-tavat

Also known as: the past active participle, ktavatu̐

The suffix -tavat has a similar meaning to -ta. When we add it to a root that means “X,” we usually create words that mean “has X-ed.” Here are some examples:

  • श्रु → श्रुतवत्
    śru → śrutavat
    hear → has heard

-tavat causes all the same sound changes that -ta does.