Also known as: vyañjanāni (“embellishments”), hal
Consonants are sounds that we pronounce by changing the basic flow of air through the mouth. In Sanskrit, consonants use three different kinds of air flow:
spṛṣṭam: full contact at the points of pronunciation. Air no longer flows through the mouth at all. This applies for the sounds ka through ma.
īṣatspṛṣṭam: slight contact at the points of pronunciation. Air flows through the mouth in a highly constricted way. This applies for the sounds ya through va.
īṣadvivṛtam: loose contact at the points of pronunciation. Air flows through the mouth in a less constricted way. This applies for the sounds śa through ha.
ka through ma
Also known as: sparśāḥ (“contacted (sounds)”)
The first twenty-five consonants are often arranged in a square with 5 rows and 5 columns:
For all of these sounds, the points of pronunciation make full contact with each other. Thus they are called sparśāḥ (“contacts”). In English grammar, the nasal sounds are called nasals, and the rest are called stops.
As a reminder, here is how these sounds are usually described:
The sounds in the first and second columns are called unvoiced (aghoṣāḥ), and the others are called voiced (ghoṣavantaḥ).
The sounds in the second and fourth columns are called aspirated (mahāprāṇāḥ), and the others are called unaspirated (alpaprāṇāḥ).
The sounds in the fifth column are called nasal (anunāsikāḥ).
ya through va
Also known as: antaḥsthāḥ (“in-between (sounds)”)
In Sanskrit, the four semivowels are called antaḥstha (“in-between”), perhaps because these consonants are pronounced in a way that is in-between vowels and other consonants:
Semivowels can also be nasalized. For example, the anusvāra is pronounced like a nasal y when y follows it.
śa through ha
Also known as: ūṣmāṇaḥ (“vapor (sounds)”)
The last four sounds are called sibilants in English grammar and ūṣmāṇaḥ in Sanskrit:
As a reminder, ha is voiced. But śa, ṣa, and sa are not.
In certain styles of Vedic recitation, a ḍa sound between vowels becomes ḻa. And likewise, a ḍha sound between vowels becomes ḷha:
These consonants appear only in Vedic compositions.
-kāra and -varga
As with the vowels, we can add -kāra to the end of any consonant to give it a more usable name. But ra is called repha (“snarl,” “burr”) instead:
क → ककारः
ka → kakāraḥ
ka → The letter ka
र → रेफः
ra → rephaḥ
ra → The letter ra
We can also use the word -varga (“group, division”) to refer to sets of consonants with similar properties. We have:
kavarga for the first five consonants (ka kha ga gha ṅa)
cavarga for the next five consonants (ca cha ja jha ña)
ṭavarga for the next five consonants (ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa)
tavarga for the next five consonants (ta tha da dha na)
pavarga for the next five consonants (pa pha ba bha ma)
yavarga for the semivowels (ya ra la va)
śavarga for the sibilants (śa ṣa sa ha)
Which sounds are in śavarga?
What is another name for the consonant ra?