Review

Congratulations! You have completed the core lessons. Take a moment to celebrate your hard work.

If you want to set grammar aside for now and focus on finding interesting content, you have our blessing. As always, we encourage you to find content you can understand and start reading. (See our resources page for details.)

But if you want to continue, you can explore the other topics of this guide in whatever order you like. Go wherever your interests take you.

When you read a new topic, make sure you read its lessons in order. The easiest and most common ideas are in the early lessons. Later lessons add much more detail, and they depend on the ideas from earlier lessons.

Right now, your tree of grammar is a strong and solid trunk. And with time and patience, it will become something truly beautiful. But before you go on, let's take a moment to review what we've learned.

We started by learning about the Sanskrit sounds and their traditional order:


  • a

  • ā

  • i

  • ī

  • u

  • ū




  • e

  • ai

  • o

  • au
  • अं
    aṃ
  • अः
    aḥ

  • ka

  • kha

  • ga

  • gha

  • ṅa

  • ca

  • cha

  • ja

  • jha

  • ña

  • ṭa

  • ṭha

  • ḍa

  • ḍha

  • ṇa

  • ta

  • tha

  • da

  • dha

  • na

  • pa

  • pha

  • ba

  • bha

  • ma

  • ya

  • ra

  • la

  • va

  • śa

  • ṣa

  • sa

  • ha

We then studied some simple sandhi rules and learned how these sounds combine with each other.

After studying sounds and sandhi, we moved to sentences and words. We learned what Sanskrit sentences are like and how they behave. We also learned about the three basic types of Sanskrit words: nominals, verbs, and uninflected words.

We learned that nominals express information like gender:

  • गजः पश्यति।
    gajaḥ paśyati.
    The (male) elephant sees.

  • गजा पश्यति।
    gajā paśyati.
    The (female) elephant sees.

case:

  • गजश् चरति।
    gajaś carati.
    The elephant walks.

  • रामो गजं चरति।
    rāmo gajaṃ carati.
    Rama walks to the elephant.

and number:

  • गजः पश्यति।
    gajaḥ paśyati.
    The elephant sees.

  • गजौ पश्यतः।
    gajau paśyataḥ.
    The two elephants see.

  • गजाः पश्यन्ति।
    gajāḥ paśyanti.
    The (many) elephants see.

We also learned that verbs express information like person:

  • नयति
    nayati
    (Someone) leads.

  • नयसि
    nayasi
    You lead.

  • नयामि
    nayāmi
    I lead.

number:

  • नयति
    nayati
    (Someone) leads.

  • नयतः
    nayataḥ
    The two of them lead.

  • नयन्ति
    nayanti
    All of them lead.

various tense-moods:

  • नयामि
    nayāmi
    I lead.

  • नेष्यामि
    neṣyāmi
    I will lead.

  • नयेयम्
    nayeyam
    I might lead.

and two prayoga, which we will discuss in a later lesson:

  • नयसि
    nayasi
    You lead.

  • नीयसे
    nīyase
    You are led.

Finally, we learned about how to create new words using prefixes:

  • गच्छन्ति → आगच्छन्ति
    gacchanti → āgacchanti
    They go. → They come.

  • हिंसा → अहिंसा
    hiṃsā → ahiṃsā
    violence → non-violence

suffixes:

  • युज् → योग
    yuj → yoga
    yoke, join, unite → yoking, junction, union; yoga

  • योग → योगिन्
    yoga → yogin
    yoga → yogi

and compounds:

  • रामः सीता च → रामसीते
    rāmaḥ sītā ca → rāmasīte
    Rama and Sita

  • रामस्य माता → राममाता
    rāmasya mātā → rāmamātā
    Rama's mother

Together, these core lessons are a complete high-level summary of Sanskrit grammar. What remain, of course, are the details.

  1. What are the five points of pronunciation?

  2. Which vowels are compound vowels?

  3. What is the basic principle that most sandhi changes follow?

  4. Why can we reorder the words in a Sanskrit sentence?

  5. What are the basic parts of a verb?

  6. What are the basic parts of a noun?

  7. Describe one of the Sanskrit compounds we learned about.