First, Second, etc.

Now that you're familiar with Sanskrit numbers, we can study words like "first" and "second." These words are derived from the numbers we just saw, and they are used as adjectives.

First to Tenth

प्रथम
mf(ā)n
first
द्वितीय
mf(ā)n
second
तृतीय
mf(ā)n
third
चतुर्थ
mf(ī)n
fourth
पञ्चम
mf(ī)n
fifth
षष्ठ
mf(ī)n
sixth
सप्तथ
mf(ī)n
seventh
अष्टम
mf(ī)n
eighth
सवम
mf(ī)n
ninth
दशम
mf(ī)n
tenth

As mentioned above, these numbers are used as adjectives. These words are often used to number the chapters of a work:

• अथ प्रथमो ऽध्यायः । अर्जुनविषादयोगः

atha prathamo 'dhyāyaḥ । arjuna-viṣāda-yogaḥ

Now starts the first chapter : the yoga of Arjuna's despair

In English, the words from "fourth" onward mostly use "-th", but the words from "first" to "third" do not. In the same way, the words from "fourth" onward use ī for the feminine, but the words from "first" to "third" do not. This correspondence is a coincidence, but it's a useful way to remember which consonants use ī in the feminine.

11th to 19th

The number remains the same. It is inflected like a noun ending in -a. The feminine uses ī.

• अथ षोडशो ऽध्यायः । दैवासुरसम्पद्विभागयोगः

Now starts the sixteenth chapter : the yoga of the division between divine and demonic fates

20th to 99th

The number either has tama added to the end of it or is "contracted" to a shorter form.

• द्वाविंशतितम

dvāviṃśatitama

twenty-second

• एकविंश, चतुस्त्रिंश, नवचत्वारिंश, अष्टापञ्चाश, द्वाषष्ट, सप्तसप्तत, पञ्चाशीत, षड्णवत

ekaviṃśa, catustriṃśa, navacatvāriṃśa, aṣṭāpañcāśa, dvāṣaṣṭa, saptasaptata, pañcāśīta, ṣaḍṇavata

twenty-first, thirty-fourth, forty-ninth, fifty-eighth, sixty-second, seventy-seventh, eighty-fifth, ninety-sixth

100th onward

The number either has tama added to the end of it or remains the same.