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-ṛ Nouns | Learn Sanskrit Online

-ṛ Nouns

In the previous unit, we studied the two-stem nouns, which use two distinct stems in their various forms. One of those two-stems nouns was formed with the -tṛ suffix, but we only studied a few of that suffix's forms. Here, we will study the rest. We will also study some words that end in -ṛ that were not formed with the -tṛ suffix.

-tṛ

The tṛ suffix defines the agent or doer of some action. As mentioned in an earlier lesson, this primary suffix is related to the English suffix "-er," as in "hunter" or "overseer." Almost all nouns that end in -ṛ are formed using the -tṛ suffix.

To attach the suffix to the verb root, we change the root in the same way as we did for the FPP. Here is a modified version of the rules for the FPP:

The root is strengthened to the medium level. Either tṛ or itṛ is added to the end; but, the following roots always use tṛ:

Inflection

The strong and weak stems are as follows:

EndingsStrong StemWeak StemSpecial Stem
-tṛ-tār-tṛ-tā

Since the tṛ suffix was originally tar, some of the forms below follow the pattern of consonant stems. But since the tṛ suffix itself ends in a vowel, some forms also follow the pattern of vowel stems.

- (masculine, feminine)
कार्तृ Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) कार्ता
kārtā
कार्तारौ
kārtārau
कार्तारः
kārtāraḥ
Case 2 (object) कार्तारम्
kārtāram
कार्तारौ
kārtārau
कार्तॄन्
kārtṝn
Case 3 ("with") कार्त्रा
kārtrā
कार्तृभ्याम्
kārtṛbhyām
कार्तृभिः
kārtṛbhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") कार्त्रे
kārtre
कार्तृभ्याम्
kārtṛbhyām
कार्तृभ्यः
kārtṛbhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") कार्तुः
kārtuḥ
कार्तृभ्याम्
kārtṛbhyām
कार्तृभ्यः
kārtṛbhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") कार्तुः
kārtuḥ
कार्त्रोः
kārtroḥ
कर्तॄणम्
kārtṝṇām
Case 7 ("in") कार्तरि
kārtari
कार्त्रोः
kārtroḥ
कार्तृषु
kārtṛṣu
Case 8 (address) कार्तः (र्)
kārtaḥ (r)
कार्तारौ
kārtārau
कार्तारः
kārtāraḥ

The singular forms behave like consonant stems, but note the differences in cases 5 through 7. The dual forms follow the pattern of the consonant stems. The plural forms follow the pattern of the consonant stems, but cases 2 and 6 both follow the pattern of the vowel stems.

Feminine Endings

Feminine forms use the suffix trī and follow the pattern of nouns like vāpī.

Family Relations

Sanskrit has several words used to describe relationships between people. Of these words, the most common end in -ṛ; they are listed below. Just for fun, try to guess the English meaning based on the Sanskrit word.

पितृ
m
father
मातृ
f
mother
भ्रातृ
m
brother
स्वसृ
f
sister

These nouns are all very old, and they are also a bit irregular:

The irregularity in svasṛ is probably due to Brugmann's law.