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-a, -i, and -u Nouns | Learn Sanskrit Online

, , and nouns

Stems that end in , , and are almost always feminine. They follow the pattern of the feminine pronoun, which we will also study here. Since the stems are the most regular and the stems are the least regular, we will study them in reverse order:

stems

Among the three stem types above, the stems are the most regular. Here is how they behave:

-ū (feminine)
चमू Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) चमूः
camūḥ
चंवौ
caṃvau
चंवः
caṃvaḥ
Case 2 (object) चमूम्
camūm
चंवौ
caṃvau
चमूः
camūḥ
Case 3 ("with") चंवा
caṃvā
चमूभ्याम्
camūbhyām
चमूभिः
camūbhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") चंवै
caṃvai
चमूभ्याम्
camūbhyām
चमूभ्यः
camūbhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") चंवाः
caṃvāḥ
चमूभ्याम्
camūbhyām
चमूभ्यः
camūbhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") चंवाः
caṃvāḥ
चंवोः
caṃvoḥ
चमूनाम्
camūnām
Case 7 ("in") चंवाम्
caṃvām
चंवोः
caṃvoḥ
चमूषु
camūṣu
Case 8 (address) चमु
camu
चंवौ
caṃvau
चंवः
caṃvaḥ

The dual endings are completely regular. The plural endings are mostly regular. The exception is the case 2 plural ending, which is just .

The singular endings are trickier:

Note that the case 1 singular uses a visarga. Note, too, that the case 8 singular uses a short vowel. And, note that mv is written as ṃv.

stems

the stems are almost as regular as the stems. Here is how they behave:

-ī (feminine)
वापी Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) वापी
vāpī
वाप्यौ
vāpyau
वाप्यः
vāpyaḥ
Case 2 (object) वापीम्
vāpīm
वाप्यौ
vāpyau
वापीः
vāpīḥ
Case 3 ("with") वाप्या
vāpyā
वापीभ्याम्
vāpībhyām
वापीभिः
vāpībhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") वाप्यै
vāpyai
वापीभ्याम्
vāpībhyām
वापीभ्यः
vāpībhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") वाप्याः
vāpyāḥ
वापीभ्याम्
vāpībhyām
वापीभ्यः
vāpībhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") वाप्याः
vāpyāḥ
वाप्योः
vāpyoḥ
वापीनाम्
vāpīnām
Case 7 ("in") वाप्याम्
vāpyām
वाप्योः
vāpyoḥ
वपीषु
vāpīṣu
Case 8 (address) वापि
vāpi
वाप्यौ
vāpyau
वाप्यः
vāpyaḥ

The endings here are the same as the ones above. But, note that the case 1 singular does not use a visarga.

stems

The stems are still quite regular, but they do have some odd features:

-ā (feminine)
विद्या Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) विद्या
vidyā
विद्ये
vidye
विद्याः
vidyāḥ
Case 2 (object) विद्याम्
vidyām
विद्ये
vidye
विद्याः
vidyāḥ
Case 3 ("with") विद्यया
vidyayā
विद्याभ्याम्
vidyābhyām
विद्याभिः
vidyābhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") विद्यायै
vidyāyai
विद्याभ्याम्
vidyābhyām
विद्याभ्यः
vidyābhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") विद्यायाः
vidyāyāḥ
विद्याभ्याम्
vidyābhyām
विद्याभ्यः
vidyābhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") विद्यायाः
vidyāyāḥ
विद्ययोः
vidyayoḥ
विद्यानाम्
vidyānām
Case 7 ("in") विद्यायाम्
vidyāyām
विद्ययोः
vidyayoḥ
विद्यासु
vidyāsu
Case 8 (address) विद्ये
vidye
विद्ये
vidye
विद्याः
vidyāḥ

The plural endings follow the pattern of the nouns above. The singular and dual forms, however, are much trickier. The difference is in the stem used:

Also note the use of the -e ending, which appears in both the singular and the dual.

The feminine tad

The feminine version of tad is nearly identical to the stems:

tad (feminine)
तद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) सा
ते
te
ताः
tāḥ
Case 2 (object) ताम्
tām
ते
te
ताः
tāḥ
Case 3 ("with") तया
tayā
ताभ्याम्
tābhyām
ताभिः
tābhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") तस्यै
tasyai
ताभ्याम्
tābhyām
ताभ्यः
tābhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") तस्याः
tasyāḥ
ताभ्याम्
tābhyām
ताभ्यः
tābhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") तस्याः
tasyāḥ
तयोः
tayoḥ
तासाम्
tāsām
Case 7 ("in") तस्याम्
tasyām
तयोः
tayoḥ
तासु
tāsu

As before, there are multiple stems:

As before, the -e ending appears in the dual. The one major difference is that the case 6 plural is tāsām, not *tānām