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Doubling Class | Learn Sanskrit Online

Doubling Class

Introduction

Now we will study the last verb class: the doubling class. The verbs from this class are quite different from the verbs we have seen so far. The difference is not just one of stem formation; some of the endings are different, too. But in general, the endings are similar to the endings of the other complex verb classes.

Why are these verbs so complex? Part of the answer is that a large portion of the doubling-class verbs are found only in the Vedas. But although these roots are most common in Vedic texts, some of them are common enough that you should know how to recognize and use them.

Extra rules for the doubling class

and both become i.

Inflection

The stem is made as follows:

hu (duplicating, P, present tense)
हु Singular Dual Plural
Third Person जुहोति
juhoti
जुहुतः
juhutaḥ
जुह्वति
juhvati
Second Person जुहोषि
juhoṣi
जुहुथः
juhuthaḥ
जुहुथ
juhutha
First Person जुहोमि
juhomi
जुहुवः
juhuvaḥ
जुहुमः
juhumaḥ

Here is a summary of the differences between the doubling class and the other complex verb classes.

Verb Formparasmaipadaātmanepada
present tense-anti becomes -atinone
ordinary past tense-an becomes -uḥ. If the verb ends in a vowel, then the strong stem is used.none
command mood-antu becomes -atu. -hi becomes -dhi.none
option moodnonenone
present participleOnly the weak stem is used.none

The exception for the present participle is easy to understand. Recall that we get the strong shem by removing the i from the third-person plural of the present tense. If we do so for roots in the doubling class, we get -at. This, then,

Irregular Verbs

The doubling class contains two common and irregular verbs: , meaning "give," and dhā, meaning "place" or "put." A summary of each verb is below.

Situation
Verb form
strong stem
dadā
weak stem
dad
PPP
datta

dhā

Situation
Verb form
strong stem
dadhā
weak stem
dadh
PPP
hita
end of compound
dhi, dha
command mood, 2nd. sg.
dhehi
gerund (-tvā)
hitvā
gerund (-ya)
dhāya