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Distant Past Tense 3: vid and ah | Learn Sanskrit Online

Distant Past Tense 3: vid and ah

The following two roots are almost always used in the distant past tense.

vid

If you've been doing the exercises at the end of each lesson, you might have seen mention of the irregular verb vid, which is veda in the 3rd person. This verb uses the endings from the perfect, and it follows the same vowel change pattern:

But the most important part of this verb is that it is a present tense verb. So, veda means "He knows," not "He knew."

ah

The verb ah still has the normal meaning of the perfect, but it is missing many of its conjugations.

आह आहुः

Vocabulary

विद्
2P वेद
know, understand, perceive
वेद
knowledge, lore; the Vedas
ऋग्वेद
Veda of praise (ṛc)
सामवेद
Veda of songs (sāman)
यजुर्वेद
Veda of worship and sacrifice (yajus)
अथर्ववेद
Veda of the sage Atharvan (atharvan)
वेदिन्
mfn
knowing the Vedas
वैद्य
a learned person
विद्या
learning, knowledge
वेदाण्ग
"the limbs (aṇga) of the Vedas"

Vedāṅga is the term used to refer to the six disciplines necessary to understand the Vedas. You should be able to derive all of these words:

  1. śikṣā: pronunciation (śak)
  2. kalpa: ritual (kḷp)
  3. vyākaraṇa: grammar (vi ā kṛ)
  4. nirukta: etymology (nis vac)
  5. chandas: meter (chand)
  6. jyotiṣa: astronomy (jyut)