Distant Past Tense 3: vid and ah
The following two roots are almost always used in the distant past tense.
If you've been doing the exercises at the end of each lesson, you might have seen mention of the irregular verb vid, which is veda in the 3rd person. This verb uses the endings from the perfect, and it follows the same vowel change pattern:
But the most important part of this verb is that it is a present tense verb. So, veda means "He knows," not "He knew."
The verb ah still has the normal meaning of the perfect, but it is missing many of its conjugations.आह आहुः
- 2P वेद
- know, understand, perceive
- knowledge, lore; the Vedas
- Veda of praise (ṛc)
- Veda of songs (sāman)
- Veda of worship and sacrifice (yajus)
- Veda of the sage Atharvan (atharvan)
- knowing the Vedas
- a learned person
- learning, knowledge
- "the limbs (aṇga) of the Vedas"
Vedāṅga is the term used to refer to the six disciplines necessary to understand the Vedas. You should be able to derive all of these words:
- śikṣā: pronunciation (śak)
- kalpa: ritual (kḷp)
- vyākaraṇa: grammar (vi ā kṛ)
- nirukta: etymology (nis vac)
- chandas: meter (chand)
- jyotiṣa: astronomy (jyut)