The Option Mood
Also known as: present optative, vidhi ("injunction"), liṅ
Now we will study the option mood. This term refers to verbs that let us state what we could do, should do, or would do. It is used to talk about situations that haven't occurred and things that might not exist.
Then I should go
The men should speak.
Each group of endings will be compared with its counterpart in the ordinary past tense.
The P endings are similar to the past endings, but they're not exactly the same. Take a look:
These endings differ from the past endings in only three ways.
- In the first person, āma becomes īma and āva becomes īva
- ī is attached to the front of every ending. This ī merges with the a of the stem to produce e.
- The third-person plural uses -īyus.
Now for the complex verb classes. The strong stem is not used.
These endings differ from the endings of the ordinary past tense in two ways.
- yā is attached to the front of every ending.
- The third-person plural uses -yus (not *-yāyus).
In the atmanepada version of the option mood, all verbs use the same endings. These endings are identical to the endings of the ordinary past tense, with some changes. Take a look:
These endings differ from the past endings of the simple verb classes in three ways:
- āmahi becomes īmahi and āvahi becomes īvahi.
- ī is attached to the front of every ending. If the ending starts with a vowel, then īy is attached instead.
- The third-person plural uses -īran.