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The Command Mood | Learn Sanskrit Online

The Command Mood

Also known as: present imperative, ājñā ("command"), loṭ

Introduction

Back in Nouns, we studied just three of the many forms in the command mood. These three forms applied only to parasmaipada verbs from the simple verb classes. We have many more endings to study. Fortunately, these endings are almost identical to the ones we've been studying.

Endings

Each group of endings will be compared with its counterpart in the ordinary past tense.

P Endings

The simple verb classes and the complex verb classes use the same set of endings. Let's take a look at the endings:

bhū (a+, P, command mood)
भू Singular Dual Plural
Third Person भवतु
bhavatu
भवताम्
bhavatām
भवन्तु
bhavantu
Second Person भव
bhava
भवतम्
bhavatam
भवत
bhavata
First Person भवानि
bhavāni
भवाव
bhavāva
भवाम
bhavāma

The first-person endings have lost the visarga. Note the change from m to n in the first-person singular.

Here is an example for the complex verbs. The third-person singular uses the strong stem, and all three of the first-person forms use the strong stem as well.

su (no, P, command mood)
सु Singular Dual Plural
Third Person सुनोतु
sunotu
सुनुताम्
sunutām
सुन्वन्तु
sunvantu
Second Person सुनु
sunu
सुनुतम्
sunutam
सुनुत
sunuta
First Person सुनवानि
sunavāni
सुनवाव
sunavāva
सुनवाम
sunavāma

A Endings

Here are the A endings for verbs from the simple verb classes.

labh (a+, A, command mood)
लभ् Singular Dual Plural
Third Person लभताम्
labhatām
लभेताम्
labhetām
लभन्ताम्
labhantām
Second Person लभस्व
labhasva
लभेथाम्
labhethām
लभध्वम्
labhadhvam
First Person लभै
labhai
लभावहै
labhāvahai
लभामहै
labhāmahai

Now, here are the A endings for verbs from the complex verb classes. The endings are almost exactly the same.

su (no, A, command mood)
सु Singular Dual Plural
Third Person सुनुताम्
sunutām
सुन्वाताम्
sunvātām
सुन्वताम्
sunvatām
Second Person सुनुष्व
sunuṣva
सुन्वाथाम्
sunvāthām
सुनुध्वम्
sunudhvam
First Person सुनवै
sunavai
सुनवावहै
sunavāvahai
सुनवामहै
sunavāmahai

These are the differences between the two sets of endings:

We have seen this sort of change twice: in the present ātmanepada (nte → ate) and in the past ātmanepada (nta → ata).