अथ प्रथमाध्यायस्य चतुर्थः पादः (1.4)

  1. आ कडारादेका संज्ञा
    From now until the kaḍāra rule [2.2.38], we consider only one term at a time.
    1. विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम्
      When two equally powerful rules contradict each other, the more recent one is the one that's actually applied. [Patañjali applies this rule to all eight chapters, but others only apply it until 2.2.38.]
    2. यू स्त्र्याख्यौ नदी
      Words ending in ī or ū, if their gender is feminine, are called nadī.
      1. नेयङुवङ्स्थानावस्त्री
        With the sole exception of strī, such words are not nadī if iyaṅ or uvaṅ can be substituted into them;
      2. वाऽऽमि
        but these words are optionally nadī [except for strī] in the genitive plural.
      3. ङिति ह्रस्वश्च
        Words ending in i or u, when followed by ṅit, are also optionally nadī;
        1. शेषो घ्यसखि
          otherwise, they are called ghi, with the sole exception of sakhi.
        2. पतिः समास एव
          pati is called ghi when in a compound.
          1. षष्ठीयुक्तश्छन्दसि वा
            In the Vedas, pati is optionally ghi if used in connection with a word in the genitive case.
    3. ह्रस्वं लघु
      A short vowel [hrasva] is called laghu ["light"];
      1. संयोगे गुरु
        it is called guru ["heavy"] when followed by conjunct consonants [saṃyoga],
        1. दीर्घं च
          as is a long vowel [dīrgha] by itself.
    4. यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेऽङ्गम्
      In a rule that talks about attaching an affix to some other term, that "other term" is called the aṅga ["noun/verb base"].
    5. सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्
      These terms are called pada ["inflected word"]: those that end in sup [noun ending] or tiṅ [verb ending];
      1. नः क्ये
        those ending in n and followed by kya [kyac, kyaṅ, or kyaṣ];
      2. सिति च
        those followed by sit [indicatory s];
      3. स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने
        and those followed by both one of the sup affixes from su onward and kap, as long as the affixes are not sarvanāmasthāna.
    6. यचि भम्
      These terms are called bha: the terms described in the rule above [1.4.17] when followed by an affix that starts with either y or a vowel;
      1. तसौ मत्वर्थे
        those that end in t or s when followed by an affix implying possession;
      2. अयस्मयादीनि च्छन्दसि
        and those in the list starting with ayasmaya when in the Vedas.
    7. बहुषु बहुवचनम्
      A word that refers to many things is bahuvacana ["plural"].
    8. द्व्येकयोर्द्विवचनैकवचने
      A word that refers to just one thing is ekavacana ["singular"], and a word that refers to just two things is dvivacana ["dual"].
    9. कारके
      Now we will discuss the kāraka [nouns that are used to help describe an action].
      1. ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम्
        These words are called apādāna: those that identify a fixed point that is left behind;
        1. भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः
          when something is feared or protected, those that indicate the reason for fearing or protecting;
        2. पराजेरसोढः
          when parāji ["be tired of, be weary of"] is used, those that denote something unbearable;
        3. वारणार्थानां ईप्सितः
          when something is prevented, those that identify for whose sake the preventing occurs;
        4. अन्तर्द्धौ येनादर्शनमिच्छति
          when something is concealed, those that identify what one hopes to avoid;
        5. आख्यातोपयोगे
          when some sort of instruction is occurring, those that identify the teacher;
        6. जनिकर्तुः प्रकृतिः
          when jan ["to be born"] is used, those that indicate what the subject was born from;
        7. भुवः प्रभवः
          and when bhū is used, those that indicate what the subject came from.
      2. कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स सम्प्रदानम्
        These words are called saṃpradāna: those that indicate the reason for an action's performance;
        1. रुच्यर्थानां प्रीयमाणः
          with a verb meaning "like" or "please," those that indicate the one who is pleased;
        2. श्लाघह्नुङ्स्थाशपां ज्ञीप्स्यमानः
          with ślāgh, hnu, sthā, or śap, those that indicate the one who is meant to know about the action;
        3. धारेरुत्तमर्णः
          with dhār ["to owe"; causative of dhṛ], those that indicate the one who is owed;
        4. स्पृहेरीप्सितः
          with spṛh, those that indicate the thing that is desired;
        5. क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यऽसूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः
          with verbs with meanings like krudh, druh, īrṣy, or asūya, those that indicate the one that the subject is angry with,
          1. क्रुधद्रुहोरुपसृष्टयोः कर्म
            although if krudh and druh are used with the upasarga, the one that the subject is angry with will be karman instead;
        6. राधीक्ष्योर्यस्य विप्रश्नः
          with rādh or īkṣ, those that indicate the one who is looked to for an answer;
        7. प्रत्याङ्भ्यां श्रुवः पूर्वस्य कर्ता
          and in these situations, those that indicate the agent of the previous action: when śru when used with prati or ā; [Here, the "agent of the previous action" is the one who asks for a favor; āśru and pratiśru both mean "to promise." So, words that specify for whose sake a promise was made are saṃpradāna.]
          1. अनुप्रतिगृणश्च
            and when gṝ is used with anu or prati. [Here, the "agent of the previous action" is the person who is being urged onward; anugṝ and pratigṝ both mean "to urge on by repeating." So, words that specify the person for whose sake this repeating occurs are saṃpradāna.]
      3. साधकतमं करणम्
        That which is especially helpful is called karaṇa.
        1. दिवः कर्म च
          When used with div ["play (dice), gamble"], it is also called karman.
        2. परिक्रयणे सम्प्रदानमन्यतरस्याम्
          When used with parikrī ["buy, barter, purchase, hire"], it is optionally called saṃpradāna.
      4. आधारोऽधिकरणम्
        The location of an action is called adhikaraṇa,
        1. अधिशीङ्स्थाऽऽसां कर्म
          but in these situations, the location is karman [see 1.4.49 below] instead: when śī, sthā, or ās is used with adhi;
        2. अभिनिविशश्च
          when the verb is abhiniviś;
        3. उपान्वध्याङ्वसः
          and when the verb is vad and is used with upa, anu, adhi, or ā.
      5. कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म
        These words are called karman [accusative noun]: those that indicate the thing that the subject [of the sentence] affects the most,
        1. तथायुक्तं चानिप्सीतम्
          even if the agent doesn't wish to affect it;
        2. अकथितं च
          nouns that don't fit in any other kāraka; [see SCV]
        3. गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ
          and the subjects of some verbs that are followed by ṇi but are not already ṇi. Those verbs are: those that imply moving or knowing or eating, those whose object is some literary work, and those without an object;
          1. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम्
            and, optionally, hṛ and kṛ.
      6. स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता
        Whatever the speaker chooses as the agent of an action is called the kartṛ,
        1. तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च
        2. and that kartṛ, if it is the cause of the action, is also called hetu.
      7. प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपातः
        From here until the rīśvara rule [1.4.97], we will discuss the nipāta ["particle"].
        1. चादयोऽसत्त्वे
          These words are called nipāta as long as they don't signify nouns or adjectives: the words in the list starting with ca
          1. प्रादयः
            and the words in the list starting with pra.
        2. उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे
          When used with a verb, the words in the list starting with pra are called upasarga ["prepositions"];
          1. गतिश्च
            they are also called gati.
        3. ऊर्यादिच्विडाचश्च
          These words are called gati: the words in the list starting with ūrī; cvi and ḍāc;
          1. अनुकरणं चानितिपरम्
            onomatopoetic words when not followed by iti;
          2. आदरानादरयोः सदसती
            sat when it means "respect" or "care; asat when it means "disrespect" or "indifference";
          3. भूषणेऽलम्
            alam when it means "ornament";
          4. अन्तरपरिग्रहे
            antar when it means "not taking" or "renouncing";
          5. कणेमनसी श्रद्धाप्रतीघाते
            kaṇe and manas when they imply "satiation";
          6. पुरोऽव्ययम्
            puras when it is indeclinable [avyaya];
          7. अस्तं च
            astam;
          8. अच्छ गत्यर्थवदेषु
            accha when used with either a verb of motion or vad;
          9. अदोऽनुपदेशे
            adas when it doesn't refer to something other than the subject; ["to something other than the subject" has to be supplied]
          10. तिरोऽन्तर्धौ
            and tiras when implying concealment.
          11. विभाषा कृञि
            These words are optionally gati when used with kṛ: tiras when implying concealment [tiras comes from 1.4.71 above];
            1. उपाजेऽन्वाजे
              upāje and anvāje;
            2. साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च
              the words in the list beginning with sākṣāt;
            3. अनत्याधान उरसिमनसी
              and these words when they don't imply the placement of something (i.e. the placement of one thing on another): urasi and manasi;
              1. मध्येपदेनिवचने च
                and madhye, pade, and nivacane.
          12. नित्यं हस्ते पाणावुपयमने
            These words are always gati when used with kṛ: haste and paṇau when implying marriage;
          13. प्राध्वं बन्धने
            prādhvam when implying the binding of something;
          14. जीविकोपनिषदावौपम्ये
            and jīvika and upaniṣad when implying an analogy [as in upaniṣatkṛ, "to make mysterious like an upaniṣad].
        4. ते प्राग्धातोः
          The gati and the upasarga are placed before the verb root [dhātu] [gati carries over from the previous rule, and the word te here refers to the upasarga];
          1. छन्दसि परेऽपि
            but in the Vedas, they can even be placed after the root,
          2. व्यवहिताश्च
            and they can also be separated from the root (by another word).
        5. कर्मप्रवचनीयाः
          Now we discuss the karmapravacanīya ["that which describes an action"]. [Consult SCV for examples]
          1. अनुर्लक्षणे
            These words are karmapravacanīya: anu when it denotes a sign, [a "sign" of an action, i.e. something that explains the cause of an action. So, anu is karmapravacanīya when it means "after," "because," or so on. SCV says that is rule is here, although it seems redundant from 1.4.90, because it shows that the karmapravacanīya is used with nouns in the accusative case.]
            1. तृतीयाऽर्थे
              when it has the sense of the instrumental case,
            2. हीने
              or when it means "inferior" or "below" ;
          2. उपोऽधिके च
            upa when it means "superior," "inferior," or "below" ; ["inferior" and "below" come from 1.4.86 above]
          3. अपपरी वर्जने
            apa and pari when meaning "exclusion" or "exception";
          4. आङ् मर्यादावचने
            ā when it implies a limit;
          5. लक्षणेत्थम्भूताख्यानभागवीप्सासु प्रतिपर्यनवः
            prati, pari, and anu when they imply a sign, a circumstance, a division or share of something, or the repetition of something;
            1. अभिरभागे
              abhi in all of these senses except "a division or share of something";
          6. प्रतिः प्रतिनिधिप्रतिदानयोः
            prati when it implies a representative or the exchange of something;
          7. अधिपरी अनर्थकौ
            adhi and pari when they are meaningless; [i.e. when they are exclamations]
          8. सुः पूजायाम्
            su when respect or excellence is implied;
            1. अतिरतिक्रमणे च
              ati when it implies abundance, respect, or excellence;
          9. अपिः पदार्थसम्भावनान्ववसर्गगर्हासमुच्चयेषु
            api when it implies a word that is understood from context, a possibility, permission, censure, or addition;
          10. अधिरीश्वरे
            and adhi when it implies dominion over something,
            1. विभाषा कृञि
              although it is optionally so when followed by kṛ.
      8. लः परस्मैपदम्
        The substitutes for la [the ten verb types] are parasmaipada,
        1. तङानावात्मनेपदम्
          but the taṅ affixes and the āna affixes [sānac and kānac] are ātmanepada.
      9. तिङस्त्रीणि त्रीणि प्रथममध्यमोत्तमाः
        The three triads of affixes in tiṅ are, respectively, called prathama ["3rd person"], madhyama ["2nd person"], and uttama ["1st person"].
        1. तान्येकवचनद्विवचनबहुवचनान्येकशः
          Within a tiṅ triad, the affixes are, respectively, called ekavacana ["singular"], dvivacana ["dual"], and bahuvacana ["plural"];
          1. सुपः
            the same applies for the sup triads.
      10. विभक्तिश्च
        Within sup [this word carries over from 1.4.103], the triads are called vibhakti ["case endings"].
      11. युष्मद्युपपदे समानाधिकरणे स्थानिन्यपि मध्यमः
        When yuṣmad is subordinate to the verb [upapada], agrees with the verb in number, and is either implied or explicitly stated, madhyama is used.
        1. प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे मन्यतेरुत्तम एकवच्च
          When a verb implies some sort of humor and man is used in a subordinate sense, then the first-person singular is used for man and the second person is used for the other verb.
        2. अस्मद्युत्तमः
          When asmad is subordinate to the verb [upapada], agrees with the verb in number, and is either implied or explicitly stated, uttama is used;
          1. शेषे प्रथमः
            and in the situations where yuṣmad and asmad are not used, prathama is used.
      12. परः संनिकर्षः संहिता
        When two letters occur right next to each other, the contact between them is called saṃhitā ["close contact"].
      13. विरामोऽवसानम्
        The end of a phrase is called avasāna.