अथ प्रथमाध्यायस्य तृतीयः पादः (1.3)

  1. भूवादयो धातवः
    The words in the list starting with bhū are called dhātu ["verb roots"].
  2. उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्
    In an upadeśa ["original enunciation," i.e. something you could find in a list of suffixes, verb roots, ...], nasalized vowels are it ["indicatory"], as are the following:
    1. हलन्त्यम्
      final consonants,
      1. न विभक्तौ तुस्माः
        although letters from tu, s, and m are not indicatory when at the end of a case affix;
    2. आदिर्ञिटुडवः
      initial ñi, ṭu, and ḍu;
    3. षः प्रत्ययस्य
      and these letters when they're the initial letter of an affix: ;
      1. चुटू
        letters from cu or ṭu [SCV says that this isn't always true];
      2. लशक्वतद्धिते
        and l, ś, and the letters from kavarga, as long as the affix is not a taddhita affix.
  3. तस्य लोपः
    All it terms are deleted.
  4. यथासंख्यम् अनुदेशः समानाम्
    When a list of terms is given with an equally long list of substitutes, the substitute replaces the corresponding term in the list.
  5. स्वरितेनाधिकारः
    The svarita accent indicates an adhikāra rule.
  6. अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम्
    Roots with an indicatory or svarita accent are followed by ātmanepada affixes,
    1. भावकर्म्मणोः
      and these affixes follow verbs of state and passive verbs [literally, "object" verbs].
    2. कर्त्तरि कर्म्मव्यतिहारे
      ātmanepada affixes are used in these situations: when the action is reciprocal,
      1. न गतिहिंसार्थेभ्यः
        but not with verbs implying motion or injury,
        1. इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च
          nor when itaretara ["each other"] or anyonya ["one another"] is used to qualify the verb.
    3. नेर्विशः
      ātmanepada affixes are used after the following verbs: viś when it is used with ;
    4. परिव्यवेभ्यः क्रियः
      krī when it is used with pari, vi, or ava;
    5. विपराभ्यां जेः
      ji when it is used with vi or parā;
    6. आङो दोऽनास्यविहरणे
      when it used after ā and the result does not mean "to open the mouth";
    7. क्रीडोऽनुसम्परिभ्यश्च
      krīḍ when it is used with anu, sam, pari, or ā [ā carries over from the previous rule];
    8. समवप्रविभ्यः स्थः
      sthā when it is used with sam, ava, pra, or vi;
      1. प्रकाशनस्थेयाख्ययोश्च
        sthā when it means "reveal" or "consult an arbitrator";
      2. उदोऽनूर्द्ध्वकर्मणि
        sthā when it used after ud and does not mean "rise up";
      3. उपान्मन्त्रकरणे
        sthā when it it used after upa and either means "adore"
        1. अकर्मकाच्च
          or exists without an object;
    9. उद्विभ्यां तपः
      and these verbs when they're used without objects ["without an object" comes from the previous rule] : tap when it is used with ud or vi;
      1. आङो यमहनः
        yam and han when they are used after ā;
      2. समो गम्यृच्छिप्रच्छिस्वरत्यर्तिश्रुविदिभ्यः
        and gam, ṛch, prach, svar, , śru, and vid when they are used after sam.
    10. निसमुपविभ्यो ह्वः
      ātmanepada affixes are used after the following verbs: hve when it either is used after ni, sam, upa, or vi,
      1. स्पर्द्धायामाङः
        or is used after ā and implies competition;
    11. गन्धनावक्षेपणसेवनसाहसिक्यप्रतियत्नप्रकथनोपयोगेषु कृञः
      kṛ when it means "point out," "despise," "serve," "use violence," "cause change," "utter," or "act for a purpose;
      1. अधेः प्रसहने
        kṛ when it is used with adhi and has the sense of "overcoming" or "enduring";
      2. वेः शब्दकर्म्मणः
        kṛ when it is used with vi and either means "making sound"
        1. अकर्मकाच्च
          or is used without an object;
    12. सम्माननोत्सञ्जनाचार्यकरणज्ञानभृतिविगणनव्ययेषु नियः
      when it implies respect, lifting something up, guiding somebody, investigating, hiring somebody, paying a debt of some kind, or spending money on something;
      1. कर्तृस्थे चाशरीरे कर्मणि
        and when its object is something non-physical that is within the subject [e.g. anger].
    13. वृत्तिसर्गतायनेषु क्रमः
      ātmanepada affixes are used after kram in these situations: when it implies continuity, energy, or good progress,
      1. उपपराभ्याम्
        even if it is used with upa or para;
      2. आङ उद्गमने
        when it is used with ā and implies the rising of some celestial body;
      3. वेः पादविहरणे
        when it is used with vi and implies movement on foot;
      4. प्रोपाभ्यां समर्थाभ्याम्
        when it is used with pra or upa and implies commencement of some action;
      5. अनुपसर्गाद्वा
        and optionally when it has no upasarga at all.
    14. अपह्नवे ज्ञः
      ātmanepada affixes are used after the following verbs: jñā when it implies concealment or deceit,
      1. अकर्मकाच्च
        even if it's used without an object;
      2. सम्प्रतिभ्यामनाध्याने
        jñā when it is used with sam or prati and does not imply regretful recollection;
    15. भासनोपसम्भाषाज्ञानयत्नविमत्युपमन्त्रणेषु वदः
      and vad in these situations: when it implies the shining or brilliance of something, persuasion, knowledge, effort, a difference of opinion, or flattery;
      1. व्यक्तवाचां समुच्चारणे
        when it implies that something is said simultaneously by many people,
        1. अनोरकर्मकात्
          either by itself or when used after anu and without an object;
      2. विभाषा विप्रलापे
        and optionally when it implies contradiction.
    16. अवाद्ग्रः
      ātmanepada affixes are used after the following verbs: gṝ when either used after ava
      1. समः प्रतिज्ञाने
        or used after sam when the verb implies a promise;
    17. उदश्चरः सकर्मकात्
      car when it is used with ud and is used with an object;
      1. समस्तृतीयायुक्तात्
        car when it is used with sam and is used with a word in the instrumental case;
    18. दाणश्च सा चेच्चतुर्थ्यर्थे
      when it is used with sam and used with a word that is in the instrumental case ["in the instrumental case" carries over from 1.3.54 above] but implies the dative case;
    19. उपाद्यमः स्वकरणे
      yam when it is used with upa and implies marriage;
    20. ज्ञाश्रुस्मृदृशां सनः
      jñā, śru, smṛ, and dṛś when followed by san [desiderative affix],
      1. नानोर्ज्ञः
        but not when jñā is used with anu,
      2. प्रत्याङ्भ्यां श्रुवः
        nor when śru is used with prati or ā;
    21. शदेः शितः
      and these verbs when followed by a śit affix: śad;
    22. म्रियतेर्लुङ्लिङोश्च
      and mṛ when followed by luṅ or liṅ affixes.
    23. पूर्ववत् सनः
      ātmanepada affixes are used after ātmanepada verbs followed by san [the idea here is that a verb keeps its "voice" when it becomes desiderative].
    24. आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽनुप्रयोगस्य
      ātmanepada affixes are used after kṛ when it is used, as an auxiliary verb, with a verb that both ends in ām [marker of the periphrastic perfect] and normally takes ātmanepada affixes.
    25. प्रोपाभ्यां युजेरयज्ञपात्रेषु
      ātmanepada affixes are used after the following verbs: yuj when it is used with pra or upa, unless it deals with sacrificial vessels;
    26. समः क्ष्णुवः
      kṣṇu when it is used with sam;
    27. भुजोऽनवने
      bhuj when it does not imply protection;
    28. णेरणौ यत् कर्म णौ चेत् स कर्ताऽनाध्याने
      and the following verbs when followed by the ṇi affix: those that do not imply regretful recollection and whose object before ṇi is attached to them becomes the subject after ṇi is attached to them [a roundabout way of saying: "passive verbs that have become causative, as long as they don't imply regretful recollection." SCV for the reason that Panini uses this clumsy explanation] ;
      1. भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये
        bhī ["to fear"] and smi ["to astonish"] when the hetu [causative agent] is a source of fear;
      2. गृधिवञ्च्योः प्रलम्भने
        gṛdh and vañc when implying deceit;
      3. लियः सम्माननशालिनीकरणयोश्च
      4. मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोऽभ्यासे
    29. स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले
      ātmanepada affixes are used after the following verbs when their subjects are affected by the result of the action: verbs marked with a svarita or an indicatory ñ;
      1. अपाद्वदः
        vad when it is used with apa;
      2. णिचश्च
        verbs followed by the ṇi affix;
      3. समुदाङ्भ्यो यमोऽग्रन्थे
        yam when used with sam, ud, or ā and not implying the use of a text;
      4. अनुपसर्गाज्ज्ञः
        jñā when used without an upasarga ["verb prefix"];
      5. विभाषोपपदेन प्रतीयमाने
        and optionally [for 1.3.72 - 1.3.76 above] when used with an upapada that indicates that the subject is affected by the result of the action. ["that the subject is affected by the result of the action" is implied from 1.3.72.]
  7. शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्
    All other verbs, when they indicate the agent, are parasmaipada.
    1. अनुपराभ्यां कृञः
      parasmaipada affixes are used after the following verbs: kṛ when it is used with anu or para [this rule overrides 1.3.32 above];
    2. अभिप्रत्यतिभ्यः क्षिपः
      kṣip when it is used with abhi, prati, or ati;
    3. प्राद्वहः
      vah when it is used with pra;
    4. परेर्मृषः
      mṛṣ when it is used with pari;
    5. व्याङ्परिभ्यो रमः
      and with ram in these situations: when it is used with vi or ā;
      1. उपाच्च
        and when it is used with upa,
        1. विभाषाऽकर्मकात्
          although it is optionally so when used intransitively.
    6. बुधयुधनशजनेङ्प्रुद्रुस्रुभ्यो णेः
      parasmaipada affixes are used after the following verbs when they have indicatory ṇi [causative affix]: budh, yudh, naś, jan, i, pru, and sru;
      1. निगरणचलनार्थेभ्यः
        verbs that imply "swallowing" or "moving";
      2. अणावकर्मकाच्चित्तवत्कर्तृकात्
        and verbs that, before they become causative, are intransitive and have a thinking being for their agent;
      3. न पादम्याङ्यमाङ्यसपरिमुहरुचिनृतिवदवसः
        but not , dam, āyam, āyas, parimuh, ruc, nṛt, vad, and vas.
    7. वा क्यषः
      parasmaipada affixes are optionally used after the following verbs: those ending in kyaṣ;
      1. द्युद्भ्यो लुङि
        those in the list starting with dyut when luṅ affixes follow;
      2. वृद्भ्यः स्यसनोः
        those in the list starting with vṛt when sya or san affixes follow;
      3. लुटि च कॢपः
        and kḷp when luṭ ["1st" or "periphrastic" future] affixes follow. (kḷp is in the list starting with vṛt, so 1.3.92 above applies to it.)