अथ प्रथमाध्यायस्य द्वितीयः पादः (1.2)

  1. गाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित्
    These affixes are treated as if they were ṅit: those after or kuṭ [both of these terms are verb roots], as long as the affix is neither ñit nor ṇit;
    1. विज इट्
      iṭ affixes after vij [SCV says "initial" iṭ affixes]
      1. विभाषोर्णोः
        after ūrṇu, but preferably not;
    2. सार्वधातुकमपित्
      and sārvadhātuka affixes that are not pit.
  2. असंयोगाल्लिट् कित्
    These affixes are treated as if they were kit: liṭ affixes [affixes for the perfect tense] when they do not follow conjunct consonants [saṃyoga] and are not pit,
    1. इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च
      although all liṭ affixes are kit when after indh or bhū;
    2. मृडमृदगुधकुषक्लिशवदवसः क्त्वा
      ktvā after mṛḍ, mṛd, gudh, kuṣ, kliś, vad, or vas [this rule is an exception to 1.2.18];
    3. रुदविदमुषग्रहिस्वपिप्रच्छः सँश्च
      ktvā and san after the verbs rud, vid, muṣ, grah, svap, or prach;
    4. इको झल्
      and san when it starts with a jhal consonant [this restriction is here because san sometimes starts with a connecting i vowel] and follows a word that ends in an ik vowel,
      1. हलन्ताच्च
        even if the two are separated by one or more consonants.
    5. लिङ्सिचावात्मनेपदेषु
      After roots ending in an ik vowel followed by consonants, the liṅ and sic affixes, if they start with a jhal consonant, are treated as if they were kit if ātmanepada affixes follow them;
      1. उश्च
        the same applies after roots ending in ,
      2. वा गमः
        and it applies optionally after gam.
    6. हनः सिच्
      sic, when it is followed by an ātmanepada affix, is treated as if it were kit: when after the verb han;
      1. यमो गन्धने
        when after yam if it means "divulge";
      2. विभाषोपयमने
        preferably not after yam if it means "marry";
      3. स्थाघ्वोरिच्च
        and after either sthā or a ghu verb. Both sthā and the ghu verbs will have their final vowel sound changed to i [by 1.1.52 - 1.1.55].
    7. न क्त्वा सेट्
      These affixes are not kit: ktvā when it is seṭ [a contraction of sa-iṭ; if a root has iṭ, it is seṭ.];
      1. निष्ठा शीङ्स्विदिमिदिक्ष्विदिधृषः
        the seṭ niṣṭhā affixes after the verbs śī, svid, mid, kṣvid, and dhṛṣ;
        1. मृषस्तितिक्षायाम्
          the same affixes after mṛṣ when it means "endure";
        2. उदुपधाद्भावादिकर्मणोरन्यतरस्याम्
          and optionally with verbs whose penultimate letter is u when they are used either impersonally or to mark the beginning of an action.
      2. पूङः क्त्वा च
        The seṭ niṣṭhā and seṭ ktvā affixes are not kit after the verb .
      3. नोपधात्थफान्ताद्वा
        The seṭ ktvā is optionally kit in these situations: after verbs that end in a nasal sound that is followed by either th or ph;
        1. वञ्चिलुञ्च्यृतश्च
          after the verbs vañc, luñc, and ṛt;
        2. तृषिमृषिकृशेः काश्यपस्य
          and, according to Kāśyapa, after the verbs tṛṣ, mṛṣ, and kṛś.
      4. रलो व्युपधाद्धलादेः संश्च
        After a verb whose first letter is a consonant, whose last letter is a consonant other than y and v, and whose last vowel is i, ī, u, or ū, the seṭ ktvā and seṭ san affixes are optionally kit.
  3. ऊकालोऽज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः
    A vowel lasting as long as u is called hrasva ["short"]. A vowel lasting as long as ū is called dīrgha ["long"]. A vowel lasting as long as a prolonged u is called pluta ["prolonged"];
    1. अचश्च
      these terms only apply to vowels.
  4. उच्चैरुदात्तः
    Vowels with a high tone are called udātta,
    1. नीचैरनुदात्तः
      those with a low tone are called anudātta,
    2. समाहारः स्वरितः
      and those that are a combination of both are called svarita.
      1. तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम्
        The first part of the svarita is udātta and lasts for half of a hrasva [i.e. half of the duration of a short vowel].
  5. एकश्रुति दूरात् सम्बुद्धौ
    In these circumstances, the tone is called ekaśruti ["monotonous," with no pitch accent]: when attressing a person from a distance;
    1. यज्ञकर्मण्यजपन्यूङ्खसामसु
      in sacrificial works, except for in japa [recitation in a low voice or whisper], nyūṅkha [a set of 16 different pronunciations of Om], or the Samaveda;
    2. उच्चैस्तरां वा वषट्कारः
      in the word vaṣat, although the word is optionally said with udātta;
    3. विभाषा छन्दसि
      optionally in the Vedas [chandas],
    4. न सुब्रह्मण्यायां स्वरितस्य तूदात्तः
      but never in the subrahmaṇya hymns. In these hymns, the svarita becomes udātta,
      1. देवब्रह्मणोरनुदात्तः
        and the words deva and brahman are anudātta.
    5. स्वरितात् संहितायामनुदात्तानाम्
      An anudātta that follows a svarita in saṃhitā ["continuous recital"] becomes ekaśruti,
      1. उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः
        but if the anudātta is followed by udātta or svarita, it becomes sannatara.
  6. अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः
    An affix that is just one letter in length is called apṛtka.
  7. तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः
    A tatpuruṣa in which both members have the same grammatical case [adhikaraṇa] is called karmadhāraya.
  8. प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्
    In rules about compounds, the word upasarjana ["subordinate"] refers to terms in the nominative case;
    1. एकविभक्ति चापूर्वनिपाते
      and in such rules, this word also refers to terms that occur in a single grammatical case, as long as those terms don't begin the compound.
  9. अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्
    These words are called prātipadika ["uninflected noun," "proto-noun"]: meaningful words that are neither dhātu nor pratyaya,
    1. कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च
      compounds, and words ending in either kṛt or taddhita affixes.
  10. ह्रस्वो नपुंसके प्रातिपदिकस्य
    A prātipadika undergoes these changes: when it's in the neuter gender, its final vowel becomes short;
    1. गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य
      and when it ends with an upasarjana and that upasarjana is either go or a word that becomes feminine because of an affix, its final vowel becomes short [e.g. śabalago "having mottled cows" becomes śabalagu, but śabalago "a mottled cow" remains the same. And when it is uparsajana, a word like mālā becomes māla, but a word like lakṣmī stays the same].
  11. लुक् तद्धितलुकि
    If a taddhita affix is deleted by luk, then the feminine suffix of the upasarjana is also deleted by luk, ["feminine" and upasarjana carry over from the previous rule; see SCV for examples]
    1. इद्गोण्याः
      but goṇī will become goṇi instead.
  12. लुपि युक्तवद्व्यक्तिवचने
    If a taddhita affix is deleted by lup, then the gender and number of the original word are restored,
    1. विशेषणानां चाजातेः
      and adjectives agree with such a word as long as the word does not signify a jāti. [the word jāti means "class," "group," "people," and so on; see SCV for more information]
  13. तदशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वात्
    These things are aśiṣya ["cannot be taught"]: the agreement between a noun's meaning and a noun's gender and number, because they are decided by convention; [e.g. dāra is used in the masculine plural and kalatra is used in the neuter, but both mean "wife" !]
    1. लुब्योगाप्रख्यानात्
      rules about lup, because the words formed by lup don't always follow from their etymological meaning,
      1. योगप्रमाणे च तदभावेऽदर्शनं स्यात्
        for after all, a word whose etymological basis has disappeared would have to disappear as well; [SCV says that this strengthens 1.2.54 above]
    2. प्रधानप्रत्ययार्थवचनमर्थस्यान्यप्रमाणत्वात्
      rules about the dependence of a word's meaning on its pradhāna ["principal part of a compound"] or pratyaya ["suffix"], because they depend on another authority; [This is because these things are dictated by the ultimate authority: the people who use them!]
      1. कालोपसर्जने च तुल्यम्
        and rules about kāla ["tense"] and upasarjana ["order, sequence"], similarly, cannot be taught.
  14. जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम्
    The following words are optionally bahuvacana: a single word that denotes a jāti [class or group of something];
    1. अस्मदो द्वायोश्च
      asmad when in the singular or dual; ["singular" carries over from 1.2.58 above]
      1. फल्गुनीप्रोष्ठपदानां च नक्षत्रे
        and phālgunī and proṣṭhapadā when in the dual and signifying stars.
    2. छन्दसि पुनर्वस्वोरेकवचनम्
      punarvasu, when signifying two stars, is optionally singular in the Vedas;
      1. विशाखयोश्च
        the same applies to viśākhā.
    3. तिष्यपुनर्वस्वोर्नक्षत्रद्वंद्वे बहुवचनस्य द्विवचनं नित्यम्
      But the dvandva compound formed from tiṣya and punarvasu, when signifying stars, is always dual. [SCV says that the word bahuvacana is here to show that all dvandva compounds are optionally singular.]
  15. सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ
    When multiple words are identical [by spelling, not by meaning] and in the same grammatical case, one of them will absorb the others.
    1. वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः
      Likewise, the following words will absorb the words mentioned alongside them, as long as both are in the same grammatical case: a vṛddha word used with yuvan, as long as the two words differ only in their affixes,
      1. स्त्री पुंवच्च
        and moreover, the result is masculine even if the vṛddha word is feminine;
    2. पुमान् स्त्रिया
      a masculine word used with its feminine counterpart;
    3. भ्रातृपुत्रौ स्वसृदुहितृभ्याम्
      bhrātṛ when used with svasṛ; putra when used with duhitṛ;
    4. नपुंसकमनपुंसकेनैकवच्चास्यान्यतरस्याम्
      and, optionally, the following: a neuter noun when used with identical masculine and feminine nouns (albeit with different affixes);
      1. पिता मात्रा
        pitṛ when used with mātṛ;
      2. श्वशुरः श्वश्र्वा
        and śvaśura when used with śvaśrū.
    5. त्यदादीनि सर्वैर्नित्यम्
      But the following words will always absorb the words they're used with: the pronouns in the list starting with tyad when used with any other noun;
    6. ग्राम्यपशुसंघेषु अतरुणेषु स्त्री
      and a feminine noun that indicates a group of domestic animals that are not young (when used with a similar word in the masculine).