Exercises: iti and iva
Now you can read almost anything. Have at it! We'll learn the extremely rare consonants ṭh, ḍh, and jh later on. There are also a few other letters of various sorts, but they are even rarer.
But if you're keen on practicing one last time, try writing the verses below in IAST.
एवमुक्त्वा ततो राजन्महायोगेश्वरो हरिः ।
दर्शयामास पार्थाय परमं रूपमैश्वरम् ॥
अनेकदिव्याभरणं दिव्यानेकोद्यतायुधम् ॥
क्त्र = ktra.
दिव्यमाल्याम्बरधरं दिव्यगन्धानुलेपनम् ।
सर्वाश्चर्यमयं देवमनन्तं विश्वतोमुखम् ॥
दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता ।
यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥
द्य = dya.
Translate from Englishto Sanskrit.
"I do not want that fruit," thinks the boy.
Thinking that he [a boy] wants the elephant, the boy goes.
Thinking that he [someone else] wants the elephant, the boy goes.
"'The son goes to the city,' think the heroes," thinks the man.
The boy walks with the elephant to the man as if he [the boy] were a hero.
The boy walks with the elephant to the man as if he [the man] were a hero.
The boy walks with the elephant to the man as if he [the elephant] were a hero.
"I understand for the village," thinks the man with the horse.
"I understand," thinks the man with the horse who is like water.
Thus do I think.
In the last two exercises, "with" has the sense of company, as in "I go with my friend." So, the man doesn't own the horse; he's just near one. We'll study this fact after Starting Out.
As before, English meanings (in a more poetic translation this time) are provided for your curiosity. The highlighted words are ones you should recognize. We'll learn almost all of the rest after Starting Out. Bhagavad Gita 11.8 - 11.12:
evamuktvā tato rājanmahāyogeśvaro hariḥ ।
darśayāmāsa pārthāya paramaṃ rūpamaiśvaram ॥
Then having spoken thus, O king (i.e. Dhritarashtra), Hari (i.e. Krishna) the mighty lord of yoga
did show to the son of Pritha (i.e. Arjuna) his ultimate lordly form:
anekadivyābharaṇaṃ divyānekodyatāyudham ॥
Of many faces, many eyes, of many wondrous spectacles,
Of many divine ornaments, divine his many weapons raised,
divyamālyāmbaradharaṃ divyagandhānulepanam ।
sarvāścaryamayaṃ devamanantaṃ viśvatomukham ॥
Wearing garlands and clothes divine, divine perfumes anointing him,
a god made up of every marvel, endless, facing all at once.
divi sūryasahasrasya bhavedyugapadutthitā ।
yadi bhāḥ sadṛśī sā syādbhāsastasya mahātmanaḥ ॥
If the flare of a thousand suns should rise at once into the sky —
such would resemble then the splendor of that greatest Being.
Either man or cint could be used to translate the sentences above. I've used cint below.
तत् फलं नेच्छामीति बालो मन्यते
ahaṃ tat phalaṃ necchāmīti bālo manyate
गजमिच्छामीति बालो गच्छति
ahaṃ gajam icchāmīti bālo gacchati
स गजमिच्छतीति बालो गच्छति
sa gajam icchatīti bālo gacchati
पुत्रो नगरं गच्छतीति वीरा मन्यन्त इति नरो मन्यते
putro nagaraṃ gacchatīti vīrā manyanta iti naro manyate
बालो वीर इव गजेन नरं चरति
bālo vīra iva gajena naraṃ carati
बालो वीरम् इव गजेन नरं चरति
bālo vīram iva gajena naraṃ carati
बालो वीरेणेव गजेन नरं चरति
bālo vīreṇeva gajena naraṃ carati
Note that n becomes ṇ. We studied this sandhi rule with case 6.
ग्रामायैव बोधामीति नरो ऽश्वेन मन्यते
grāmāyaiva bodhāmīti naro 'śvena manyate
बोधामीति नरो जलेनेवाश्वेन मन्यते
bodhāmīti naro jalenevāśvena manyate
इत्य् अहं मन्ये
ity ahaṃ manye