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Exercises: Gerunds | Learn Sanskrit Online

Exercises: Gerunds

Vocabulary

First, here are two new verb prefixes for you. These prefixes are most often used with nouns and adjectives.

Good and Bad

सु
su
 
everything good (virtuous, beautiful, easy, well, …) [eu-phemism, eu-phoria]
दुस्
dus
 
everything bad (evil, inferior, difficult, …) [dys-entery, dys-lexia]

Duryodhana

युध्
yudh
युध्यति
yudhyati
fight, wage war
योधन
yodhana
n
act of fighting, war
दुर्योधन
duryodhana
m
difficult in battle (i.e. difficult to conquer); Duryodhana
Many take the name to mean "poor in battle," but I think that's unlikely. What king would give his son such an inappropriate name? And what son would accept it?
सुयोधन
suyodhana
m
excellent in battle; a kinder name for Duryodhana

Roots from other classes

The words formed from the verbs below — especially kṛ and i — are common in many contexts, and for that reason it's difficult to give a single definition for each one. The definitions below are the most common.

कृ
kṛ
???
do, make, cause
कर
kara
m
doer, maker, causer; a hand
कार
kāra
m
doer, maker; a term used to mark letters

Just as the word varga is used to mark a class of consonants — pavarga, for instance, refers to pa, pha, ba, bha, and ma — the word kāra refers to a single letter. So, kakāra refers to just the consonant sound k. The grammarian Panini refers to the different sorts of verbs with terms that start with l, and for that reason the set of verb types is often called lakāra.

ओंकार
oṃkāra
m
The sound of om ()
करण
karaṇa
n
doing, making, causing; mind, heart, body
i
???
go [ion]
वी
???
go apart, disappear, die
व्यय
vyaya
n
death, disappearance; transient
अव्यय
avyaya
mfn
undying, constant
अव्यय
avyaya
n
the Sanskrit term for uninflected words
समय
samaya
m
"going together"; meeting, understanding, treaty, contract
अयन
ayana
n
a going, an advancing, a proceeding; journey
रामायण
rāmāyaṇa
n
Rama's journey; the Ramayana
Compounds follow the rules of external sandhi, but the internal sandhi rule "n → ṇ" also applies for compounds. For that reason, retroflexion occurs in the word here.
युज्
yuj
???
yoke, equip, unite, lead [yoke, jugular]
योजन
yojana
n
yoking, harnessing
योजन
yojana
m
a unit of distance
According to Monier-Williams, this meaning is related to "yoking" because it is "a distance traversed in one harnessing or without unyoking."
योग
yoga
m
restraint, method, exertion, union; yoga
यौगिक
yaugika
mfn
relating to yoga, "yogic"
पॄ
pṝ
???
fill [plus, plenty, fill]

Translation

Translate from English to Sanskrit. Use the provided roots in your translation, and use tatpurusha compounds where they make sense. Each translation will have one gerund and one regular verb. Roots that end in consonants usually use itvā, unless the root follows one of the rules we discussed in the lesson.

Answers

Translation