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Exercises: The Other Cases | Learn Sanskrit Online

Exercises: The Other Cases

Vocabulary

Names

राम
rāma
m
Rama
कृष्ण
kṛṣṇa
m
black; Krishna

The word for Krishna, likely the most popular figure in Hinduism, is the same as the word for the color black. This is no coincidence! Krishna is consistently described as "dark as a storm cloud," alluding to his dark complexion. Today, many depictions of Krishna show him with either light blue or tan skin, but black-skinned versions can still be found in some places.

अर्जुन
arjuna
m
white, silvery, gleaming; Arjuna [Argentina]

What do Arjuna and Argentina have in common? These two words, separated by oceans and thousands of years, are intimately related.

Let's consider Arjuna first. Although the word is most famous as the name of a character in one of the two great Indian epics, the word also means "white," "silvery," and "gleaming," as mentioned above. The word arjuna is related to a few other Sanskrit words — including rajata, meaning "silver" — but as we start to look outside of the realm of Sanskrit, we can discover some interesting connections.

Now let's fast-forward to the late 16th century, when Spanish conquistadors searched for the legendary "Sierra de la Plata," or the Silver Mountains, in South America. As they traveled, they came to a river between the modern-day countries of Argentina and Uruguay, and they named it the "Río de la Plata," or the Silver River, after the mythical mountains. A Spanish cleric who wrote about the river used a Latin name for the "Silver River" and called it argentina, or "that which is made of silver." The word comes from the Latin argentum, meaning "silver money," and ultimately comes from the Greek argēeis (ἀργήεις), meaning "silvery."

The name "Argentina" stuck, and the term was soon used to refer to the country next to it — the country that we call Argentina today.

Body Parts

अङ्ग
aṅga
n
limb; body
उदर
udara
m
belly, stomach, waist
पाद
pāda
m
foot
मुख
mukha
n
mouth
हस्त
hasta
m
hand

Other

गगन
gagana
n
sky, atmosphere

Translation

For reference, here are the endings we just studied:

-a (masculine)
गज Singular Dual Plural
Case 3 ("with") गजेन
gajena
Case 4 ("for") गजाय
gajāya
Case 5 ("from") गजात्
gajāt
Case 7 ("in") गजे
gaje

Now, translate from English to Sanskrit. Leave words like "his" and "its" out of your translation; these words are usually left out when ownership is obvious.

Answers

Translation