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Visarga Sandhi | Learn Sanskrit Online

Visarga Sandhi

Visarga sandhi refers to the set of rules that describes how a word ending in -s or -r changes in front of other words.

-aḥ Sandhi

For a detailed description of the reason for the changes below, see the lesson on verbless sentences.

Second Letter
Combination
a
o '
other vowel
a —
voiced consonant
o —
c, ch
aś —
ṭ, ṭh
aṣ —
t, th
as —
other consonant
aḥ —

-āḥ Sandhi

For a detailed description of the reason for the changes below, see the lesson on verbless sentences.

Second Letter
Combination
all vowels
ā —
voiced consonants
ā —
c, ch
āś —
ṭ, ṭh
āṣ —
t, th
ās —
other consonants
āḥ —

Other -ḥ Sandhi

Second Letter
Combination
any voiced letter
—r —
c, ch
—ś —
ṭ, ṭh
—ṣ —
t, th
—s —
other consonant
—ḥ —

However, there is an exception. When the second letter is r-, the -ḥ disappears; the vowel in front of it, if it is i or u, becomes long. If the visarga originally came from the letter -r, then an a becomes long, too.

Irregular -ḥ sandhi: saḥ and esaḥ

This special rule apply to tad and etad in the masculine singular of case 1. They apply to no other words.

In front of a vowel, saḥ and eṣaḥ behave normally. In front of a consonant, saḥ becomes sa and eṣaḥ becomes eṣa.