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Consonant Nouns | Learn Sanskrit Online

Consonant Nouns

All nouns that end in a consonant use a single set of endings. The difference between the different consonant nouns, then, is that they use different strong and weak stems.

Neuter nouns, though, have some strange behavior. Plural neuter nouns, when they are in case 1, case 2, or case 8, have a nasal sound inserted after their last vowel, and the last vowel becomes long. All of the neuter nouns below, with the exception of the "-at, -mat, and -vat" noun, show this behavior.

The first three groups of nouns have irregular forms in the masculine case 1 singular. They also have no feminine declension. The letter is added to the end of these nouns to make them feminine, and the result is declined like nadī. For example, we have bhagavatī and yoginī.

However, the -at nouns (notthe -mat and -vat nouns), which are participles, use -antī for their feminine stem; for example, we have gacchantī.

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-an, -man, -van nouns

The -an, -man, and -van nouns have the same strong and weak stems. But the weak stem of -an nouns contracts to just -n when the noun ending starts with a vowel. Otherwise, the weak stem stays the same.

Masculine

-an (masculine)
आत्मन् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) आत्मा
ātmā
आत्मानौ
ātmānau
आत्मानः
ātmānaḥ
Case 2 (object) आत्मानम्
ātmānam
आत्मानौ
ātmānau
आत्मनः
ātmanaḥ
Case 3 ("with") आत्मना
ātmanā
आत्मभ्याम्
ātmabhyām
आत्मभिः
ātmabhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") आत्मने
ātmane
आत्मभ्याम्
ātmabhyām
आत्मभ्यः
ātmabhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") आत्मनः
ātmanaḥ
आत्मभ्याम्
ātmabhyām
आत्मभ्यः
ātmabhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") आत्मनः
ātmanaḥ
आत्मनोः
ātmanoḥ
आत्मनाम्
ātmanām
Case 7 ("in") आत्मनि
ātmani
आत्मनोः
ātmanoḥ
आत्मसु
ātmasu
Case 8 (address) आत्मन्
ātman
आत्मानौ
ātmānau
आत्मानः
ātmānaḥ

Neuter

-an (neuter)
नामन् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) नाम
nāma
नाम्नी, नामनी
nāmnī, nāmanī
नामानि
nāmāni
Case 2 (object) नाम
nāma
नाम्नी, नामनी
nāmnī, nāmanī
नामानि
nāmāni
Case 8 (address) नामन्, नाम
nāman, nāma
नाम्नी, नामनी
nāmnī, nāmanī
नामानि
nāmāni

-at, -mat, -vat nouns

The -at, -mat, and -vat nouns have the same strong and weak stems. But the masculine singular of -at nouns is -an instead of -ān.

Masculine

-mat and -vat (masculine)
भगवत् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) भगवान्
bhagavān
भगवन्तौ
bhagavantau
भगवन्तः
bhagavantaḥ
Case 2 (object) भगवन्तम्
bhagavantam
भगवन्तौ
bhagavantau
भगवतः
bhagavataḥ
Case 3 ("with") भगवता
bhagavatā
भगवद्भ्याम्
bhagavadbhyām
भगवद्भिः
bhagavadbhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") भगवते
bhagavate
भगवद्भ्याम्
bhagavadbhyām
भगवद्भ्यः
bhagavadbhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") भगवतः
bhagavataḥ
भगवद्भ्याम्
bhagavadbhyām
भगवद्भ्यः
bhagavadbhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") भगवतः
bhagavataḥ
भगवतोः
bhagavatoḥ
भगवताम्
bhagavatām
Case 7 ("in") भगवति
bhagavati
भगवतोः
bhagavatoḥ
भगवत्सु
bhagavatsu
Case 8 (address) भगवन्
bhagavan
भगवन्तौ
bhagavantau
भगवन्तः
bhagavantaḥ

Neuter

-mat and -vat (neuter)
भगवत् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) भगवत्
bhagavat
भगवती
bhagavatī
भगवन्ति
bhagavanti
Case 2 (object) भगवत्
bhagavat
भगवती
bhagavatī
भगवन्ति
bhagavanti
Case 8 (address) भगवत्
bhagavat
भगवती
bhagavatī
भगवन्ति
bhagavanti

-in, -min, -vin nouns

The -in, -min, and -vin nouns have the same strong and weak stems. The strong stem is used in front of vowels, and the weak stem is used everywhere else.

Masculine

-in (masculine)
योगिन् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) योगी
yogī
योगिनौ
yoginau
योगिनः
yoginaḥ
Case 2 (object) योगिनम्
yoginam
योगिनौ
yoginau
योगिनः
yoginaḥ
Case 3 ("with") योगिना
yoginā
योगिभ्याम्
yogibhyām
योगिभिः
yogibhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") योगिने
yogine
योगिभ्याम्
yogibhyām
योगिभ्यः
yogibhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") योगिनः
yoginaḥ
योगिभ्याम्
yogibhyām
योगिभ्यः
yogibhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") योगिनः
yoginaḥ
योगिनोः
yoginoḥ
योगिनाम्
yoginām
Case 7 ("in") योगिनि
yogini
योगिनोः
yoginoḥ
योगिषु
yogiṣu
Case 8 (address) योगिन्
yogin
योगिनौ
yoginau
योगिनः
yoginaḥ

Neuter

-in (neuter)
योगिन् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) योगि
yogi
योगिनी
yoginī
योगीनि
yogīni
Case 2 (object) योगि
yogi
योगिनी
yoginī
योगीनि
yogīni
Case 8 (address) योगि
yogi
योगिनी
yoginī
योगीनि
yogīni

Other nouns

Masculine and Feminine

These nouns use the ordinary endings.

Neuter

These nouns use the ordinary endings. A complex example is shown below.

(neuter consonant stem)
धनुस् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) धनुः
dhanuḥ
धनुषी
dhanuṣī
धनूंषि
dhanūṃṣi
Case 2 (object) धनुः
dhanuḥ
धनुषी
dhanuṣī
धनूंषि
dhanūṃṣi
Case 3 ("with") धनुषा
dhanuṣā
धनुर्भ्याम्
dhanurbhyām
धनुर्भिः
dhanurbhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") धनुषे
dhanuṣe
धनुर्भ्याम्
dhanurbhyām
धनुर्भ्यः
dhanurbhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") धनुषः
dhanuṣaḥ
धनुर्भ्याम्
dhanurbhyām
धनुर्भ्यः
dhanurbhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") धनुषः
dhanuṣaḥ
धनुषोः
dhanuṣoḥ
धनुषाम्
dhanuṣām
Case 7 ("in") धनुषि
dhanuṣi
धनुषोः
dhanuṣoḥ
धनुःषु
dhanuḥṣu
Case 8 (address) धनुः
dhanuḥ
धनूषी
dhanuṣī
धनूंषि
dhanūṃṣi