Letters and Vowel Marks

Vowels

Also known as: svara ("tone")

देवनागरी
IAST
a
ā
i
ī
u
ū
e
ai
o
au

Stops and Nasals (ka kha gha gha ṅa …)

Also known as: vyañjana ("manifestation")

To define a specific consonant, like kha, we need to know four things:

The set of letters that share a point of pronunciation is called a varga. Traditionally, the unvoiced unaspirated consonant is used to identify the varga. For instance, the group {ta tha da dha na} is called "tavarga."

kavarga (ka kha ga gha ṅa)

देवनागरी
IAST
ka
kha
ga
gha
ṅa

cavarga (ca cha ja jha ña)

देवनागरी
IAST
ca
cha
ja
jha
ña

ṭavarga (ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa)

देवनागरी
IAST
ṭa
ṭha
ḍa
ḍha
ṇa

tavarga (ta tha da dha na)

देवनागरी
IAST
ta
tha
da
dha
na

pavarga (pa pha ba bha ma)

देवनागरी
IAST
pa
pha
ba
bha
ma

Semivowels (ya ra la va)

Also known as: antaḥstha ("in-between")

देवनागरी
IAST
ya
ra
la
va

Note that ru is रु and is रू.

"s"-sounds (śa ṣa sa ha)

Also known as: ūṣman ("vapor")

देवनागरी
IAST
śa
ṣa
sa

ha

देवनागरी
IAST
ha

Note that hṛ is हृ and hṝ is हॄ.

Vowel Marks (ka kā ki kī, … kaṃ, kaḥ)

देवनागरी
IAST
ka
का
कि
ki
की
कु
ku
कू
कृ
kṛ
कॄ
kṝ
कॢ
kḷ
कॣ
kḹ
के
ke
कै
kai
को
ko
कौ
kau
कं
kaṃ
कः
kaḥ
क्
k
र्क
rka

The single stroke that makes become क् is called the virāma.