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Conjunct Consonants | Learn Sanskrit Online

Conjunct Consonants

If your computer does not have the necessary files to support complex Devanagari combinations, then the combinations here may not look especially noteworthy.

Special Combinations

These combinations are produced from two consonants. These consonants combine so much that it's impossible to recognize them in the result. However, both of these combinations are common enough that you should know them.

देवनागरी
IAST
क्ष
kṣa
ज्ञ
jña

Letter with a vertical line on the right + Letter

When these letters come first, they lose their line and attach to the consonant that follows them.

देवनागरी
IAST
च्छ
ccha
ग्घ
ggha
ज्ज
jja
ण्ण
ṇṇa
ब्भ
bbha

Letter +

The is added to the letter with a little mark on the bottom of it. For letters with a "hoop" (ट ठ ढ द), this mark looks like the caret sign (^).

देवनागरी
IAST
प्र
pra
क्र
kra
ट्र
ṭra
द्र
dra
त्र
tra

dya, dma, hya, hma

देवनागरी
IAST
द्य
dya
द्म
dma
ह्य
hya
ह्म
hma

śra, śva, śca, śla

In these combinations, is distorted to make room for the letter that follows it.

देवनागरी
IAST
श्र
śra
श्व
śva
श्च
śca
श्ल
śla

dgha, ddha, dbha

In these combinations, the aspirated letter (घ ध भ) attaches to the bottom of . Due to sandhi, combinations like ट्भ never occur.

देवनागरी
IAST
द्घ
dgha
द्ध
ddha
द्भ
dbha

Other Odd Combinations

देवनागरी
IAST
क्त
kta
त्त
tta
त्त्र
ttra