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Bhagavad Gita | Learn Sanskrit Online

Reading: The Bhagavad Gita


Here we will read some of the first chapter of the Bhagavad Gita. This chapter contains 47 verses total; here, we will read the last ten verses, from 1.38 to 1.47. Together, these verses describe the reasons for which Arjuna is unwilling to fight his relatives.

As you read, note the many grammatical concepts that we've covered in Nouns: compounds, passive verbs, the other noun cases, and so on. With these topics in hand, we can read much more than before.

The Verses

(अर्जुन उवाच)

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः । कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ॥

कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् । कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन ॥

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः । धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ॥

अधर्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः । स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसंकरः ॥

संकरो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च । पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ॥

दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसङ्करकारकैः । उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ॥

उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन । नरके नियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ॥

अहो बत महत्पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् । यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः ॥

यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः । धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ॥

संजय उवाच ।

एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः सङ्ख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् । विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः ॥


(Arjuna said:)

Even if they, with thoughts overwhelmed by greed, do not see the wrong caused by destroying family or the crime of betraying friends,

why shouldn't we know to turn away from this evil by perceiving the wrong caused by destroying the family, O Agitator of Men?

When the family is destroyed the ancient family laws are lost; when law is lost, lawlessness further overpowers the entire family.

Because lawlessness has overpowered (it), Krishna, the family women are corrupted; and when they are corrupted, O son of the Vrishnis, the intermixture of castes is produced.

Intermixture brings to hell the family killers and family too; and the ancestors of these (people) thus fall, deprived of offerings of rice and water.

By these wrongs, causing caste intermixture, of the family killers, caste duties are abolished — and eternal family duties (too).

These men whose family duties are abolished, O Agitator of Men, have an eternal dwelling in hell; such have we always heard.

Oh! Alas! What great evil we are resolved to perform, since from greed for royal pleasures [or "kingdom and pleasures"] we are prepared to kill our own people.

If the sons of Dhritarashtra with weapons in hand should kill me in battle — unarmed and unresisting — that would bring greater ease.

Sanjay said:

Thus speaking on the battlefield, Arjuna threw aside his bow with its arrow and (sat) on his chariot seat, his mind overcome by sorrow.