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Pronoun Bits: idam | Learn Sanskrit Online

Pronoun Bits: idam

Introduction

In the chapter on noun cases, we discussed small portions of larger topics in Sanskrit so that we could reap their benefits without spending much time in their details. Here, we'll do something similar for the Sanskrit pronouns.

As we've seen by now, the Sanskrit pronoun system is extensive, and with it we can refer to things both close at hand and far away. Here, we will study some common forms of idam, which is used to discuss things that are close by.

Unlike the pronouns we've already studied, idam is highly irregular, probably because it is a blend of two older pronouns. Here are some common forms that you should know:

Masculine

ayam (masculine)
अयम् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) अयम्
ayam
इमे
ime
Case 2 (object) इयम्
iyam
Case 3 ("with") अनेन
anena
Case 5 ("from") अस्मात्
asmāt
Case 6 ("of") अस्य
asya
Case 7 ("in") अस्मिन्
asmin

Note the a element that appears at the beginning of most of these forms. We can use this a to form many other words. For example, we can use it to form the word atra, meaning "here," much as we formed tatra and the others.

Neuter

As usual, the neuter pronoun has the same forms in case 1 and case 2.

idam (neuter)
इदम् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) इदम्
idam
Case 2 (object) इदम्
idam

Note the i element at the beginning of each form. This i, too, will appear again in several different forms.