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Exercises: Vowel Stems | Learn Sanskrit Online

Exercises: Vowel Nouns

Short pronouns

The first-person mad pronoun and the second-person tvad pronoun both have some "short forms" that appear in certain grammatical cases. Two of these short forms are me (case 6 singular) and te (case 6 singular). These forms will be used in future exercises, and we will study them in more detail later on.

Vocabulary

Vowel Nouns

अग्नि
m
fire [ignite]
गुरु
mfn
heavy; great, grave, respectable [grave]
गुरु
m
guru
गौरव
n
heaviness, respectability, venerability
मही
f
earth
नद्
नदति
sound, roar, cry
नदी
f
"roarer," a river
चमू
f
army

General vocabulary

गा
???
go
गात्र
n
"means of going"; limb
गै
गायति
sing
This verb is said to belong to the a+ class. So, too, are all verbs with a medium or strong vowel. This fact is easier to understand if we think back to our old root system: the a+ class contains roots that do not weaken.
गीत
mfn
sung (PPP)
Note that the strong vowel ai has weakened here to ī. A similar change occurs in the passive verb; so, we get gīyate.
गीता
f
that which is sung; a song
भुज्
???
eat, (physically) enjoy, feast on
भोग
m
feasting, physical/carnal pleasure
भोजन
n
act of preparing food; a meal
विप्
वेपते
tremble, shake
वेपथु
m
quivering, trembling
Note the use of the rare suffix thu, which does not have any strong meaning.
शरीर
n
body
शुष्
शुष्यति
dry up, become withered [desiccate]
परिशुष्
परिशुष्यति
become completely dry
! सद्
सीदति
sit down [sit]
This verb is said to be in either the a+ class or the a0 class.
! प्रसद्
प्रसीदति
soothe, calm down, become tranquil
प्रसाद
m
serenity, grace; a gift; food presented to god
स्वर्ग
m
heaven
हृष्
हृष्यामि
bristle; rejoice
हर्ष
m
bristling; joy, excitement
रोमहर्ष
m
bristling of body hair
The first word here is roman, which we will study later on.

Translation

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