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Exercises: Passive Verbs | Learn Sanskrit Online

Exercises: Passive Verbs

Vocabulary

Prefixes: Around

परि
 
around, about; fully, beyond; away

General Vocabulary

n
hole, opening, cavity; air, sky, heaven
सुख
mfn
happy, pleasant, easy
सुख
n
happiness, pleasure, ease
See note for duḥkha.
दुःख
mfn
painful, unpleasant, difficult
दुःख
n
sorrow, trouble, difficulty

Winthrop Sargeant, whose Gita translation is among the most popular for Sanskrit students, has this to say about the origins of sukha and duḥkha:

It is perhaps amusing to note the etymology of the words "sukha" (pleasure, comfort, bliss) and "duḥkha" (misery unhappiness, pain). The ancient Aryans who brought the Sanskrit language to India were a nomadic, horse- and cattle-breeding people who traveled in horse- or ox-drawn vehicles. "su" and "dus" are prefixes indicating good or bad. The word "kha," in later Sanskrit meaning "sky," "ether," or "space," was originally the word for "hole," particularly an axle hole of one of the Aryan's vehicles. Thus "sukha" … meant, originally, "having a good axle hole," while "duḥkha" meant "Having a poor axle hole," leading to discomfort. The Bhagavad Gita p. 303, trans. Winthrop Sargeant

It is possible that this is just a false etymology.

पाप
n
evil, misfortune, harm
This word is often translated as "sin," which is close but probably inaccurate. "Sin" implies an internal moral shame, whereas pāpa is likely more akin to a guilt that can be paid back through action and observance. Note the secondary meanings of "misfortune" and "harm," which are external circumstances.
बन्ध्
???
bind, chain, fix down [band, bond, bind]
This root appears as badh when it forms the passive stem. Once again, we can understand this change better if we consider our old root system: bandh is already strengthened, and it weakens to *bndh, which becomes badh.
बन्ध
m
bond, fetter; (worldly) bondage, imprisonment
मुच्
मुञ्चति
let loose, let free, abandon [mucus]
विमुच्
विमुञ्चति
release, set free
When passive, this verb usually means "be freed (from worldly existence)"
प्रमुच्
प्रमुञ्चति
loosen, loose, untie, unbind
मोक्ष
m
moksha
This word is formed using the sa suffix, which does not have any distinct meaning. The root vowel is strengthened, and the c is changed to k, just as vac becomes ukta.
लिप्
लिम्पति
smear, stain [live, life, leave, lipid]
Note the inserted nasal sound, which is characteristic of the a0 class.
सम
mfn
same, even, similar [some, same]
समत्व
n
uniformity, evenness, equanimity

Verbs to Roots

For each verb, give the original root. None of the roots should be unfamiliar to you.

Translation

Translate from Sanskrit to English.

Answers

Verbs to Roots

Translation