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Case 3: "with" | Learn Sanskrit Online

Case 3: "with"

Also known as: instrumental case, tṛtīyā vibhakti ("third case")

We have already learned that case 3 means about the same thing as the English word "with," but we haven't learned exactly what it describes. In this lesson, we will take a closer look at how case 3 is used.

Introduction

Case 3 captures the idea of the English word "with," in two senses of the word "with." The two senses are:

Don't forget these two distinct meanings. (Otherwise, your friend might have something to say about it!) But if you're concerned that you might, take a look at the two example sentences below. Together, these sentences emphasize the twin meanings of case 3.

As you can see, the two sentences can have different interpretations. The first meaning is more common. If we want to emphasize the second meaning, we can use some special uninflected words, which are mentioned further below.

Inflection

The case 3 endings are identical for masculine and neuter nouns.

-a (masculine)
गज Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) गजः
gajaḥ
गजौ
gajau
गजाः
gajāḥ
Case 2 (object) गजम्
gajam
गजौ
gajau
गजान्
gajān
Case 3 ("with") गजेन
gajena
गजाभ्याम्
gajābhyām
गजैः
gajaiḥ
Case 4 ("for") गजाय
gajāya
Case 5 ("from") गजात्
gajāt
Case 6 ("of") गजस्य
gajasya
गजयोः
gajayoḥ
गजानाम्
gajānām
Case 7 ("in") गजे
gaje
Case 8 (address) गज
gaja
गजौ
gajau
गजाः
gajāḥ

The -ena ending, just like the plural of case 6, can change to a retroflexed -eṇa in certain circumstances.

saha and vinā

saha and vinā are uninflected words that reinforce the "accompany" meaning of case 3. saha emphasizes that the case 1 noun acts alongside the case 3 noun. But vinā changes the meaning of case 3 and shows that the case 1 noun acts without the case 3 noun.

saha is related to the prefixes sa- and sam. vinā is probably related to the prefix vi.

Other -ḥ Sandhi

The case 3 plural follows the rules of "other -ḥ" sandhi that were described when we studied case 6. But words that follow these rules actually follow one other restriction:

If the letter that follows the visarga is r, then the visarga disappears.

The intuition for this change is simply that the combination rr never occurs in Sanskrit.

Pronouns

As always, note the parallel behavior of mad and tvad.

mad (no gender)
मद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) अहम्
aham
आवाम्
āvām
वयम्
vayam
Case 2 (object) माम्
mām
आवाम्
āvām
अस्मान्
asmān
Case 3 ("with") मया
mayā
आवाभ्याम्
āvābhyām
अस्माभिः
asmābhiḥ
Case 6 ("of") मम
mama
आवयोः
āvayoḥ
अस्माकम्
asmākam
tvad (no gender)
त्वद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) त्वम्
tvam
युवाम्
yuvām
यूयम्
yūyam
Case 2 (object) त्वाम्
tvām
युवाम्
yuvām
युष्मान्
yuṣmān
Case 3 ("with") त्वया
tvayā
युवाभ्याम्
yuvābhyām
युष्माभिः
yuṣmābhiḥ
Case 6 ("of") तव
tava
युवयोः
yuvayoḥ
युष्माकम्
yuṣmākam
tad (masculine)
तद् Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) सः
saḥ
तौ
tau
ते
te
Case 2 (object) तम्
tam
तौ
tau
तान्
tān
Case 3 ("with") तेन
tena
ताभ्याम्
tābhyām
तैः
taiḥ
Case 6 ("of") तस्य
tasya
तयोः
tayoḥ
तेषाम्
teṣām

In the next lesson, we will study one of the most common uses of case 3. Until then, practice with the exercises on the next page.