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Three Missing Endings | Learn Sanskrit Online

Three Missing Endings

All throughout this guide, we have avoided studying two endings from the second person and one ending from the third person. The simple reason for this exclusion is that these endings rarely occur occur. Before, it was simply not worth the time to study these three endings. But now that we're bringing our Sanskrit studies here to a close, we might as well learn them.

A verb is in one of two verb classes (simple / complex), takes one of two "modes" (parasmaipada / ātmanepada), and appears in four forms that rely on the verb's class (present tense, ordinary past tense, option mood, command mood). Since we have skipped 3 endings from each table, this gives us 48 endings to study in theory. But in practice, this number is lower. Moreover, regular correspondences make the endings easier to remember.

In the tables below, all endings are attached directly to the stem.

Present Tense

Three endings (all verb classes, P)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person तः
taḥ
Second Person थः
thaḥ
tha
Three endings (simple verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person ईते
īte
Second Person ईथे
īthe
ध्वे
dhve
Three endings (complex verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person आते
āte
Second Person आथे
āthe
ध्वे
dhve

The ī in the second set of endings produces forms like labhete.

Ordinary Past Tense & Command Mood

Three endings (all verb classes, P)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person ताम्
tām
Second Person तम्
tam
ta
Three endings (simple verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person ईताम्
ītām
Second Person ईथाम्
īthām
ध्वम्
dhvam
Three endings (complex verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person आताम्
ātām
Second Person आथाम्
āthām
ध्वम्
dhvam

Option Mood

The endings for the option mood are the same as the ones for the ordinary past tense and the command mood. However, these endings use a special prefix to indicate that the option mood is in effect.

Simple paraComplex paraSimple & Complex ātma
īīyā

The prefix īyā replaces the ā/ī already at the front of these endings, and the 2nd-person plural is slightly different:

Three endings (all verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person ईयाताम्
īyātām
Second Person ईयाथाम्
īyāthām
ईध्वम्
īdhvam