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ḷ and ḻ | Learn Sanskrit Online

and

Here, we will study some of the rarer sounds in Sanskrit. We will also study a special Vedic consonant.

and

is the fifth and final short vowel. is pronounced in many different ways, and the best advice I can give you is to take your best guess. Some common pronunciations are li and lri.

appears in a single verb root: kḷp (kalpate). The verb has many meanings, including "be ready for," "happen," "prepare," "cause," "create," "declare," "help somebody in obtaining something," and "perform." As far as I know, it occurs nowhere else in the Sanskrit language.

If , is rare, is even rarer: it appears in no Sanskrit works at all! is an "artificial" sound that the old Sanskrit grammarians invented, probably to create a parallel to .

Devanagari

देवनागरी
IAST
कॢ
kḷ
कॣ
kḹ

Vowel Strength

follows the pattern of .

WeakMediumStrongSemivowel
ṛ, ṝarārr
alāll

The consonant occurs in Vedic Sanskrit only. is an alternate version of , and it is used only when appears between two vowels. Likewise, ḍh becomes ḻh.

Both of these consonants are retroflex consonants.

Devanagari

देवनागरी
IAST
ḻa
ळ्ह
ḻha