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-ai, -o, and -au Nouns | Learn Sanskrit Online

-ai, -o, and -au Nouns

Introduction

The noun classes below are extremely rare. In total, these classes include about four nouns. These four nouns can still make new compounds, but on the most fundamental level, there are only four nouns to consider.

-ai

Only one noun ends in -ai. That noun is rai, a masculine word that means "wealth". Note the similarity between rai and words like "riches" and "royal."

The normal stem is -ai (rai), but ā () is used in front of endings that start with consonants.

-ai (masculine)
रै Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) राः
rāḥ
रायौ
rāyau
रायः
rāyaḥ
Case 2 (object) रायम्
rāyam
रायौ
rāyau
रायः
rāyaḥ
Case 3 ("with") राया
rāyā
राभ्याम्
rābhyām
राभिः
rābhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") राये
rāye
राभ्याम्
rābhyām
राभ्यः
rābhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") रायः
rāyaḥ
राभ्याम्
rābhyām
राभ्यः
rābhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") रायः
rāyaḥ
रायोः
rāyoḥ
रायाम्
rāyām
Case 7 ("in") रायि
rāyi
रायोः
rāyoḥ
रासु
rāsu
Case 8 (address) राः
rāḥ
रायौ
rāyau
रायः
rāyaḥ

-o

Two nouns end in -o. The first is go, which means "bull" when in the masculine gender and "cow" when in the feminine. The second is dyo, a feminine word that means "sky."

The normal stem is -o. But cases 1, 2, and 8 use -au, and the case 2 singular and plural use . The singular forms of cases 5 and 6 both use -s instead of -os.

-o (masculine, feminine)
गो Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) गौः
gauḥ
गावौ
gāvau
गावः
gāvaḥ
Case 2 (object) गाम्
gām
गावौ
gāvau
गाः
gāḥ
Case 3 ("with") गवा
gavā
गोभ्याम्
gobhyām
गोभिः
gobhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") गवे
gave
गोभ्याम्
gobhyām
गोभ्यः
gobhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") गोः
goḥ
गोभ्याम्
gobhyām
गोभ्यः
gobhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") गोः
goḥ
गवोः
gavoḥ
गवाम्
gavām
Case 7 ("in") गवि
gavi
गवोः
gavoḥ
गोषु
goṣu
Case 8 (address) गौः
gauḥ
गावौ
gāvau
गावः
gāvaḥ

-au

Only one noun ends in -au: nau, a feminine noun that means "ship." Note the similarity between nau and words like "navy" or "nautical." This noun uses the regular endings.

-au (feminine)
नौ Singular Dual Plural
Case 1 (subject) नौः
nauḥ
नावौ
nāvau
नावः
nāvaḥ
Case 2 (object) नावम्
nāvam
नावौ
nāvau
नावः
nāvaḥ
Case 3 ("with") नावा
nāvā
नौभ्याम्
naubhyām
नौभिः
naubhiḥ
Case 4 ("for") नावे
nāve
नौभ्याम्
naubhyām
नौभ्यः
naubhyaḥ
Case 5 ("from") नावः
nāvaḥ
नौभ्याम्
naubhyām
नौभ्यः
naubhyaḥ
Case 6 ("of") नावः
nāvaḥ
नावोः
nāvoḥ
नावाम्
nāvām
Case 7 ("in") नावि
nāvi
नावोः
nāvoḥ
नौषु
nauṣu
Case 8 (address) नौः
nauḥ
नावौ
nāvau
नावः
nāvaḥ